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Nominal and real effective exchange rates for Southern African Development Community countries over the period 1980-2004: implications for the expansion of the Common Monetary Area

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  • Josue Mbonigaba
  • Merle Holden

Abstract

This paper computes both the nominal effective exchange rate (NER) and the real effective exchange rate (RER) for Southern African Development Community (SADC) countries for the period 1980-2004 with a view to identifying those countries that could join the Common Monetary Area (CMA) in the future. The NER and RER variations are used to analyse the suitability of non-CMA SADC countries for membership in the CMA. Variation in the NER suggests an expansion of the CMA to include Botswana and Malawi, while variation in the RER suggests an expansion of the CMA to Mauritius, Botswana and Seychelles. As suggested in the theory developed by Melitz, while the RER variation criterion should be more expansionist than variation in the NER, the RER-based expansion - as this study shows - does not necessarily include all countries suggested by the NER-based expansion.

Suggested Citation

  • Josue Mbonigaba & Merle Holden, 2009. "Nominal and real effective exchange rates for Southern African Development Community countries over the period 1980-2004: implications for the expansion of the Common Monetary Area," Development Southern Africa, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 26(2), pages 241-254.
  • Handle: RePEc:taf:deveza:v:26:y:2009:i:2:p:241-254 DOI: 10.1080/03768350902899546
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. Johan Fourie, 2006. "Economic Infrastructure: A Review Of Definitions, Theory And Empirics," South African Journal of Economics, Economic Society of South Africa, vol. 74(3), pages 530-556, September.
    2. Peter Perkins & Johann Fedderke & John Luiz, 2005. "An Analysis Of Economic Infrastructure Investment In South Africa," South African Journal of Economics, Economic Society of South Africa, vol. 73(2), pages 211-228, June.
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    5. Fink, Carsten & Mattoo, Aaditya & Neagu, Ileana Cristina, 2005. "Assessing the impact of communication costs on international trade," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, pages 428-445.
    6. Limao, Nuno & Venables, Anthony J., 1999. "Infrastructure, geographical disadvantage, and transport costs," Policy Research Working Paper Series 2257, The World Bank.
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