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Effects of the optimal step toll scheme on equilibrium commuter behaviour

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  • Chen-Hsiu Laih

Abstract

This paper derives commuters' equilibrium queuing costs and equilibrium schedule delay costs before and after levying the optimal step tolls at a queuing bottleneck. Dealing with these equilibrium costs technically one can forecast some changes in equilibrium commuter behaviour from the no-toll to the optimal step toll cases. There is some useful information provided in this paper. First, the number of commuters who will or will not pay the tolls can be investigated before tolling a queuing bottleneck. Second, all commuters' departure time switching decisions from the no-toll to the tolled cases can be investigated before tolling. Third, the increased leisure time in the morning to the toll payer due to depart from home later than their original departure times in the no-toll case can be investigated before tolling. The above information of equilibrium commuter behaviour, which the related literature has failed to provide, is useful to policy-makers if the optimal step toll scheme is considered to be put into practice.

Suggested Citation

  • Chen-Hsiu Laih, 2004. "Effects of the optimal step toll scheme on equilibrium commuter behaviour," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 36(1), pages 59-81.
  • Handle: RePEc:taf:applec:v:36:y:2004:i:1:p:59-81
    DOI: 10.1080/0003684042000177206
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. Arnott, Richard & de Palma, Andre & Lindsey, Robin, 1993. "A Structural Model of Peak-Period Congestion: A Traffic Bottleneck with Elastic Demand," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 83(1), pages 161-179, March.
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    4. De Palma, Andre & Arnott, Richard, 1986. "Usage-dependent peak-load pricing," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 20(2), pages 101-105.
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    Cited by:

    1. van den Berg, Vincent A.C., 2012. "Step-tolling with price-sensitive demand: Why more steps in the toll make the consumer better off," Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, Elsevier, vol. 46(10), pages 1608-1622.
    2. Fosgerau, Mogens & Small, Kenneth A., 2013. "Hypercongestion in downtown metropolis," Journal of Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 76(C), pages 122-134.
    3. Takayama, Yuki & Kuwahara, Masao, 2017. "Bottleneck congestion and residential location of heterogeneous commuters," Journal of Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 100(C), pages 65-79.
    4. Chen, Hongyu & Liu, Yang & Nie, Yu (Marco), 2015. "Solving the step-tolled bottleneck model with general user heterogeneity," Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Elsevier, vol. 81(P1), pages 210-229.
    5. Chen, Hongyu & Nie, Yu (Marco) & Yin, Yafeng, 2015. "Optimal multi-step toll design under general user heterogeneity," Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Elsevier, vol. 81(P3), pages 775-793.
    6. repec:eee:transb:v:104:y:2017:i:c:p:58-81 is not listed on IDEAS
    7. André de Palma & Mogens Fosgerau, 2011. "Dynamic Traffic Modeling," Chapters,in: A Handbook of Transport Economics, chapter 9 Edward Elgar Publishing.
    8. Xiao, Feng & Shen, Wei & Michael Zhang, H., 2012. "The morning commute under flat toll and tactical waiting," Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Elsevier, vol. 46(10), pages 1346-1359.
    9. Fosgerau, Mogens, 2011. "How a fast lane may replace a congestion toll," Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Elsevier, vol. 45(6), pages 845-851, July.
    10. C. Robin Lindsey & Vincent A.C. van den Berg & Erik T. Verhoef, 2010. "Step by Step: Revisiting Step Tolling in the Bottleneck Model," Tinbergen Institute Discussion Papers 10-118/3, Tinbergen Institute, revised 02 Aug 2012.
    11. repec:eee:transb:v:101:y:2017:i:c:p:306-334 is not listed on IDEAS
    12. Yu Nie, 2015. "A New Tradable Credit Scheme for the Morning Commute Problem," Networks and Spatial Economics, Springer, vol. 15(3), pages 719-741, September.
    13. Nie, Yu (Marco) & Yin, Yafeng, 2013. "Managing rush hour travel choices with tradable credit scheme," Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Elsevier, vol. 50(C), pages 1-19.
    14. Y. Ge & B. Sun & H. Zhang & W. Szeto & Xizhao Zhou, 2015. "A Comparison of Dynamic User Optimal States with Zero, Fixed and Variable Tolerances," Networks and Spatial Economics, Springer, vol. 15(3), pages 583-598, September.
    15. Robin Lindsey, C. & van den Berg, Vincent A.C. & Verhoef, Erik T., 2012. "Step tolling with bottleneck queuing congestion," Journal of Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 72(1), pages 46-59.
    16. Mogens Fosgerau & André De Palma & Anders Karlstrom & Kenneth A. Small, 2012. "Trip timing and scheduling preferences," Working Papers hal-00742267, HAL.
    17. Jia, Zehui & Wang, David Z.W. & Cai, Xingju, 2016. "Traffic managements for household travels in congested morning commute," Transportation Research Part E: Logistics and Transportation Review, Elsevier, vol. 91(C), pages 173-189.
    18. André De Palma & Mogens Fosgerau, 2010. "Dynamic and Static congestion models: A review," Working Papers hal-00539166, HAL.
    19. van den Berg, Vincent A.C., 2014. "Coarse tolling with heterogeneous preferences," Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Elsevier, vol. 64(C), pages 1-23.
    20. Berg, V.A.C. van den, 2012. "Step tolling with price sensitive demand: Why more steps in the toll makes the consumer better off," Serie Research Memoranda 0003, VU University Amsterdam, Faculty of Economics, Business Administration and Econometrics.
    21. repec:eee:transb:v:110:y:2018:i:c:p:122-136 is not listed on IDEAS

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