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General economic equilibrium with financial markets and retainability

Author

Listed:
  • A. Jofré

    () (University of Chile)

  • R. T. Rockafellar

    () (University of Washington)

  • R. J-B. Wets

    () (University of California)

Abstract

Abstract A theory of economic equilibrium for incomplete financial markets in general real assets is developed in a new formulation with currency-denominated prices. The “goods” are not only commodities, and they can influence utility through retention as an alternative to consumption. Perfect foresight is relinquished in a rolling horizon approach to markets which lets agents pursue long-term interests without being sure of future prices. The framework is that of an economy operating in a fiat currency that agents find attractive to retain, in balance with other needs. The attractiveness comes from Keynesian considerations about uncertainty which until now have not been brought in. The existence of equilibrium is established directly—not just generically—and moreover under weaker assumptions on endowments than before, except that utility functions are taken to be concave. Agents do not need to start out with, or end up with, positive amounts of everything. With a single currency denominating the units of account in all states, price indeterminacy is avoided and all contracts issued in the financial markets can be interpreted as “real contracts.” Derivative instruments and collateralized contracts based on money prices are thereby encompassed for the first time. Transaction costs on sales of contracts, generated endogenously, lead to bid–ask spreads and in particular to a gap between interest rates for lending and borrowing money.

Suggested Citation

  • A. Jofré & R. T. Rockafellar & R. J-B. Wets, 2017. "General economic equilibrium with financial markets and retainability," Economic Theory, Springer;Society for the Advancement of Economic Theory (SAET), vol. 63(1), pages 309-345, January.
  • Handle: RePEc:spr:joecth:v:63:y:2017:i:1:d:10.1007_s00199-016-1031-y
    DOI: 10.1007/s00199-016-1031-y
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    References listed on IDEAS

    as
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    More about this item

    Keywords

    General economic equilibrium; Incomplete markets; Retainability of goods; Derivatives and collateral; Transaction costs; Asset pricing; Variational inequality; Variational analysis;

    JEL classification:

    • D52 - Microeconomics - - General Equilibrium and Disequilibrium - - - Incomplete Markets
    • D53 - Microeconomics - - General Equilibrium and Disequilibrium - - - Financial Markets
    • D58 - Microeconomics - - General Equilibrium and Disequilibrium - - - Computable and Other Applied General Equilibrium Models
    • D46 - Microeconomics - - Market Structure, Pricing, and Design - - - Value Theory
    • D81 - Microeconomics - - Information, Knowledge, and Uncertainty - - - Criteria for Decision-Making under Risk and Uncertainty
    • E12 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - General Aggregative Models - - - Keynes; Keynesian; Post-Keynesian
    • E41 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Money and Interest Rates - - - Demand for Money
    • E44 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Money and Interest Rates - - - Financial Markets and the Macroeconomy
    • G13 - Financial Economics - - General Financial Markets - - - Contingent Pricing; Futures Pricing
    • C62 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Mathematical Methods; Programming Models; Mathematical and Simulation Modeling - - - Existence and Stability Conditions of Equilibrium
    • C68 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Mathematical Methods; Programming Models; Mathematical and Simulation Modeling - - - Computable General Equilibrium Models

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