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Birth Cohort and the Specialization Gap Between Same-Sex and Different-Sex Couples

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  • Lisa Giddings
  • John Nunley
  • Alyssa Schneebaum
  • Joachim Zietz

Abstract

We examine differences in household specialization between same-sex and different-sex couples within and across three birth cohorts: Baby Boomers, Generation X, and Generation Y. Using three measures of household specialization, we find that same-sex couples are less likely than their different-sex counterparts to exhibit a high degree of specialization. However, the “specialization gap” between same-sex and different-sex couples narrows across birth cohorts. These findings are indicative of a cohort effect. Our results are largely robust to the inclusion of a control for the presence of children and for subsets of couples with and without children. We provide three potential explanations for why the specialization gap narrows across cohorts. First, different-sex couples from more recent birth cohorts may have become more like same-sex couples in terms of household specialization. Second, social and legal changes may have prompted a greater degree of specialization within same-sex couples relative to different-sex couples. Last, the advent of reproductive technologies, which made having children easier for same-sex couples from more recent birth cohorts, could result in more specialization in such couples relative to different-sex couples. Copyright Population Association of America 2014

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  • Lisa Giddings & John Nunley & Alyssa Schneebaum & Joachim Zietz, 2014. "Birth Cohort and the Specialization Gap Between Same-Sex and Different-Sex Couples," Demography, Springer;Population Association of America (PAA), vol. 51(2), pages 509-534, April.
  • Handle: RePEc:spr:demogr:v:51:y:2014:i:2:p:509-534
    DOI: 10.1007/s13524-013-0267-4
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    Cited by:

    1. Michael E. Martell & Peyton Nash, 2020. "For Love and Money? Earnings and Marriage Among Same-Sex Couples," Journal of Labor Research, Springer, vol. 41(3), pages 260-294, September.
    2. Benjamin Cerf, 2016. "Sexual Orientation, Income, and Stress at Work," Industrial Relations: A Journal of Economy and Society, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 55(4), pages 546-575, October.
    3. Chen, Shuai & van Ours, Jan C., 2020. "Symbolism matters: The effect of same-sex marriage legalization on partnership stability," Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, Elsevier, vol. 178(C), pages 44-58.
    4. Moberg, Ylva, 2016. "Does the gender composition in couples matter for the division of labor after childbirth?," Working Paper Series 2016:8, Uppsala University, Department of Economics.
    5. Schneebaum, Alyssa & Mader, Katharina, 2013. "The gendered nature of intra-household decision making in and across Europe," Department of Economics Working Paper Series 157, WU Vienna University of Economics and Business.
    6. Moberg, Ylva, 2016. "Does the gender composition in Couples matter for the division of labor after childbirth?," Working Paper Series 2016:8, IFAU - Institute for Evaluation of Labour Market and Education Policy.
    7. Francine D. Blau & Anne E. Winkler, 2017. "Women, Work, and Family," NBER Working Papers 23644, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    8. Mary Eschelbach Hansen & Michael E. Martell & Leanne Roncolato, 2020. "A labor of love: The impact of same-sex marriage on labor supply," Review of Economics of the Household, Springer, vol. 18(2), pages 265-283, June.
    9. Sansone, Dario, 2019. "Pink work: Same-sex marriage, employment and discrimination," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 180(C).
    10. Martell, Michael E., 2021. "Labor market differentials estimated with researcher-inferred and self-identified sexual orientation," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 205(C).
    11. Michael E. Martell & Leanne Roncolato, 2020. "Share of Household Earnings and Time Use of Women in Same-Sex and Different-Sex Households," Eastern Economic Journal, Palgrave Macmillan;Eastern Economic Association, vol. 46(3), pages 414-437, June.
    12. Hofmarcher, Thomas & Plug, Erik, 2021. "Specialization in Same-Sex and Different-Sex Couples," IZA Discussion Papers 14709, Institute of Labor Economics (IZA).
    13. Oreffice, Sonia & Sansone, Dario, 2021. "Sissy That Walk: Transportation to Work by Sexual Orientation," IZA Discussion Papers 14571, Institute of Labor Economics (IZA).
    14. Dilmaghani, Maryam & Dean, Jason, 2020. "Sexual orientation and homeownership in Canada," Journal of Housing Economics, Elsevier, vol. 49(C).
    15. Kate Prickett & Alexa Martin-Storey & Robert Crosnoe, 2015. "A Research Note on Time With Children in Different- and Same-Sex Two-Parent Families," Demography, Springer;Population Association of America (PAA), vol. 52(3), pages 905-918, June.
    16. Peter Siminski & Rhiannon Yetsenga, 2020. "Rethinking Specialization and the Sexual Division of Labor in the 21st Century," Working Paper Series 2020/04, Economics Discipline Group, UTS Business School, University of Technology, Sydney.
    17. Josef Montag, 2015. "What Drives the Gender Gap? An Analysis Using Sexual Orientation," Kyklos, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 68(4), pages 577-608, November.
    18. Oreffice, Sonia, 2016. "Sexual Orientation and Marriage/Orientación sexual y Matrimonio," Estudios de Economia Aplicada, Estudios de Economia Aplicada, vol. 34, pages 7-34, Enero.
    19. Elisabeth Cudeville & Martine Gross & Catherine Sofer, 2020. "Measuring Gender Norms in Domestic Work: A Comparison between Homosexual and Heterosexual Couples," Post-Print halshs-02468956, HAL.
    20. Chen, Shuai, 2019. "Marriage, minorities, and mass movements," Other publications TiSEM 9cb1b11d-12e6-46a8-adca-4, Tilburg University, School of Economics and Management.
    21. Alyssa Schneebaum & Nina Schubert, 2017. "Marriage (In)equality: Does the Sexual Orientation Wage Gap Persist Across Marital Status?," Department of Economics Working Papers wuwp254, Vienna University of Economics and Business, Department of Economics.
    22. Maryam Dilmaghani, 2019. "Sexual orientation and the ‘cohabitation gap’ in life satisfaction in Canada," Review of Economics of the Household, Springer, vol. 17(4), pages 1163-1189, December.
    23. Coral Río & Olga Alonso-Villar, 2019. "Occupational segregation by sexual orientation in the U.S.: exploring its economic effects on same-sex couples," Review of Economics of the Household, Springer, vol. 17(2), pages 439-467, June.
    24. M. V. Lee Badgett, 2018. "Left Out? Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Poverty in the U.S," Population Research and Policy Review, Springer;Southern Demographic Association (SDA), vol. 37(5), pages 667-702, October.
    25. Karsten Hank & Martin Wetzel, 2018. "Same-sex relationship experiences and expectations regarding partnership and parenthood," Demographic Research, Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research, Rostock, Germany, vol. 39(25), pages 701-718.

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