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Geographical Barriers to Employment for American-born and Immigrant Workers

Author

Listed:
  • Valerie Preston

    (Geography Department, York University, 4700 Keele Street, North York, Ontario, Canada, M3J 1P3, vpreston@yorku.ca)

  • S. McLafferty

    (Geography and Geology Department, Hunter College-CUNY, 695 Park Avenue, New York, NY 10021, USA, slm@everest.hunter.cuny.edu.)

  • X.F. Liu

    (Geography Department, York University, 4700 Keele Street, North York, Ontario, Canada, M3J 1P3, sfliu@yorku.ca)

Abstract

Residential segregation interacts with the changing geography of transport and employment in urban areas to restrict access to workplaces. A growing literature suggests that spatial barriers limit the job opportunities of minority women and men in American cities. This study examines the nature and extent of geographical barriers for minority immigrants by analysing their commuting behaviour. Information from the 1990 Public Use Microdata Sample is used to compare the commuting times of immigrant and native-born minority women in central parts of the New York Consolidated Metropolitan Statistical Area. The effects of occupation, wages, family responsibilities, transport mode, year of arrival in the US and English fluency on commuting time are assessed separately for immigrant men and women. The results suggest that race/ethnic group has a larger influence on commuting times than place of birth. However, white immigrant women's employment is less restricted by geographical barriers than that of minority immigrants. The findings confirm the diversity of immigrant women's experiences, reinforcing the need to consider the interrelations among gender, race and class when examining urban labour markets.

Suggested Citation

  • Valerie Preston & S. McLafferty & X.F. Liu, 1998. "Geographical Barriers to Employment for American-born and Immigrant Workers," Urban Studies, Urban Studies Journal Limited, vol. 35(3), pages 529-545, March.
  • Handle: RePEc:sae:urbstu:v:35:y:1998:i:3:p:529-545
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    Cited by:

    1. Cathy Yang Liu & Gary Painter, 2010. "Travel Behavior among Latino Immigrants: The Role of Ethnic Neighborhoods and Ethnic Employment," Working Paper 8516, USC Lusk Center for Real Estate.
    2. Gary Painter & Cathy Yang Liu & Duan Zhuang, 2007. "Immigrants and the Spatial Mismatch Hypothesis: Employment Outcomes among Immigrant Youth in Los Angeles," Urban Studies, Urban Studies Journal Limited, vol. 44(13), pages 2627-2649, December.
    3. Zhu, Pengyu & Liu, Cathy Yang & Painter, Gary, 2014. "Does residence in an ethnic community help immigrants in a recession?," Regional Science and Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 47(C), pages 112-127.
    4. Samuel L. Myers & Chanjin Chung & Lisa Saunders, 2001. "Racial Differences in Transportation Access to Employment in Chicago and Los Angeles, 1980 and 1990," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 91(2), pages 174-177, May.
    5. Cathy Yang Liu, 2009. "Ethnic enclave residence, employment, and commuting of Latino workers," Journal of Policy Analysis and Management, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 28(4), pages 600-625.
    6. David C. Ribar, 2013. "Immigrants’ time use: a survey of methods and evidence," Chapters,in: International Handbook on the Economics of Migration, chapter 20, pages 373-392 Edward Elgar Publishing.
    7. Church, A. & Frost, M. & Sullivan, K., 2000. "Transport and social exclusion in London," Transport Policy, Elsevier, vol. 7(3), pages 195-205, July.
    8. Cathy Yang Liu, 2008. "Ethnic Enclave Residence & Employment Accessibility of Latino Workers in Chicago, Los Angeles, Washington DC," Working Paper 8536, USC Lusk Center for Real Estate.
    9. K. Bruce Newbold & Darren M. Scott & Charles Burke, 2017. "Immigrant status and commute distance: an exploratory study based on the greater Golden Horseshoe," Transportation, Springer, vol. 44(1), pages 181-198, January.
    10. Cathy Yang Liu & Gary Painter, 2010. "Immigrant Settlement and Employment Suburbanization: Is There a Spatial Mismatch?," Working Paper 8514, USC Lusk Center for Real Estate.

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