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Competitive Balance in the National Football League After the 1993 Collective Bargaining Agreement


  • Travis Lee

    () (Cornell University, Ithaca, NY, USA)


In the large literature on issues related to competitive balance, studies tend to find no significant effect of structural changes, such as changes in league rules, on parity. However, the 1993 collective bargaining agreement (CBA) between the National Football League owners and players included several innovations that might be expected to affect competitive balance. The present note measures interseasonal parity as the impact of previous season's winning percentage on current season's winning percentage and finds that the 1993 CBA had the effect of increasing competitive balance.

Suggested Citation

  • Travis Lee, 2010. "Competitive Balance in the National Football League After the 1993 Collective Bargaining Agreement," Journal of Sports Economics, , vol. 11(1), pages 77-88, February.
  • Handle: RePEc:sae:jospec:v:11:y:2010:i:1:p:77-88

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    Cited by:

    1. Fort, Rodney & Maxcy, Joel & Diehl, Mark, 2016. "Uncertainty by regulation: Rottenberg׳s invariance principle," Research in Economics, Elsevier, vol. 70(3), pages 454-467.


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