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An Empirical Analysis of Homosexual/Heterosexual Male Earnings Differentials: Unmarried and Unequal?

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  • Sylvia A. Allegretto
  • Michelle M. Arthur

Abstract

Using data from the 1990 U.S. Census (PUMS 5%), the authors present the first large-scale study of wage differentials between heterosexual and homosexual men. The homosexual sample, consisting of gay men in unmarried partnered relationships, are estimated to have earned 15.6% less than similarly qualified married heterosexual men, and 2.4% less than similarly qualified unmarried partnered heterosexual men. The authors interpret these two figures as upper- and lower-bound estimates of the differential between homosexual and heterosexual men. The dual comparison enables the authors to disentangle the penalty to being unmarried from other determinants of the wage differential; estimated at 14.1%, this variable appears to be the main source of the wage gap.

Suggested Citation

  • Sylvia A. Allegretto & Michelle M. Arthur, 2001. "An Empirical Analysis of Homosexual/Heterosexual Male Earnings Differentials: Unmarried and Unequal?," ILR Review, Cornell University, ILR School, vol. 54(3), pages 631-646, April.
  • Handle: RePEc:sae:ilrrev:v:54:y:2001:i:3:p:631-646
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    Cited by:

    1. Benjamin Cerf, 2016. "Sexual Orientation, Income, and Stress at Work," Industrial Relations: A Journal of Economy and Society, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 55(4), pages 546-575, October.
    2. Lina Aldén & Lena Edlund & Mats Hammarstedt & Michael Mueller-Smith, 2015. "Effect of Registered Partnership on Labor Earnings and Fertility for Same-Sex Couples: Evidence From Swedish Register Data," Demography, Springer;Population Association of America (PAA), vol. 52(4), pages 1243-1268, August.
    3. Christopher Carpenter, 2004. "New Evidence on Gay and Lesbian Household Incomes," Contemporary Economic Policy, Western Economic Association International, vol. 22(1), pages 78-94, January.
    4. Brendan Cushing-Daniels & Tsz-Ying Yeung, 2009. "Wage Penalties And Sexual Orientation: An Update Using The General Social Survey," Contemporary Economic Policy, Western Economic Association International, vol. 27(2), pages 164-175, April.
    5. Christopher Jepsen & Lisa K. Jepsen, 2017. "Self-employment, earnings, and sexual orientation," Review of Economics of the Household, Springer, vol. 15(1), pages 287-305, March.
    6. Karen Leppel, 2016. "The incidence of self-employment by sexual orientation," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 46(3), pages 347-363, March.
    7. Amanda K. Baumle, 2009. "The Cost of Parenthood: Unraveling the Effects of Sexual Orientation and Gender on Income," Social Science Quarterly, Southwestern Social Science Association, vol. 90(4), pages 983-1002.
    8. Bruce Elmslie & Edinaldo Tebaldi, 2014. "The Wage Gap against Gay Men: The Leveling of the Playing Field," Kyklos, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 67(3), pages 330-345, August.
    9. Doris Weichselbaumer, 2013. "Discrimination in gay and lesbian lives," Chapters,in: Handbook of Research on Gender and Economic Life, chapter 15, pages 236-254 Edward Elgar Publishing.
    10. Ali M. Ahmed & Mats Hammarstedt, 2009. "Detecting Discrimination against Homosexuals: Evidence from a Field Experiment on the Internet," Economica, London School of Economics and Political Science, vol. 76(303), pages 588-597, July.
    11. Josef Montag, 2015. "What Drives the Gender Gap? An Analysis Using Sexual Orientation," Kyklos, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 68(4), pages 577-608, November.
    12. Botti, Fabrizio & D’Ippoliti, Carlo, 2014. "Don’t ask don’t tell (that you’re poor). Sexual orientation and social exclusion in Italy," Journal of Behavioral and Experimental Economics (formerly The Journal of Socio-Economics), Elsevier, vol. 49(C), pages 8-25.
    13. Chen, Shuai & van Ours, Jan C., 2017. "Subjective Well-Being and Partnership Dynamics: Are Same-Sex Relationships Different?," IZA Discussion Papers 11043, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
    14. Diaz-Serrano, Luis & Meix-Llop, Enric, 2016. "Do schools discriminate against homosexual parents? Evidence from a randomized correspondence experiment," Economics of Education Review, Elsevier, vol. 53(C), pages 133-142.
    15. Karen Leppel, 2009. "Labour Force Status and Sexual Orientation," Economica, London School of Economics and Political Science, vol. 76(301), pages 197-207, February.
    16. repec:spr:jlabre:v:39:y:2018:i:1:d:10.1007_s12122-017-9249-4 is not listed on IDEAS
    17. Shuai Chen & Jan (J.C.) van Ours, 2017. "Subjective Well-being and Partnership Dynamics; Are Same-Sex Relationships Different?," Tinbergen Institute Discussion Papers 17-088/V, Tinbergen Institute.
    18. Aksoy, Cevat Giray & Carpenter, Christopher S. & Frank, Jeff & Huffman, Matt L., 2018. "Gay Glass Ceilings: Sexual Orientation and Workplace Authority in the UK," IZA Discussion Papers 11574, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
    19. David Christafore & J. Sebastian Leguizamon, 2013. "Revisiting Evidence of Labor Market Discrimination against Homosexuals and the Effects of Anti-Discriminatory Laws," The Review of Regional Studies, Southern Regional Science Association, vol. 43(2,3), pages 213-238, Winter.
    20. Michael E. Martell, 2014. "HOW ENDAs EXTEND THE WORKWEEK: LEGAL PROTECTION AND THE LABOR SUPPLY OF BEHAVIORALLY GAY MEN," Contemporary Economic Policy, Western Economic Association International, vol. 32(3), pages 560-577, July.
    21. Coral del Río & Olga Alonso-Villar, 2016. "Occupational segregation by sexual orientation in the U.S.: Exploring its economic effects on same-sex couples," Working Papers 425, ECINEQ, Society for the Study of Economic Inequality.
    22. Coral del Río & Olga Alonso-Villar, 2016. "Occupational Achievements by Sexual Orientation in the U.S.: Are There Differences Among Races?," Working Papers 1604, Universidade de Vigo, Departamento de Economía Aplicada.

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