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French professional football in European context: how much different?


  • Andreef, Wladimir

    () (Centre d’Economie de la Sorbonne; Maison des Sciences Economiques, Université de Paris 1 Panthéon Sorbonne)


The article analyses interrelation between financial and sporting performance of professional football clubs in France. The general assessment of that performance is given. The inputs mobilized for attaining such performance are examined in order to evaluate the efficiency of French professional football clubs. Against the background of a typically optimistic financial self-assessment on the part of French football clubs, the article examines the sources and structure of professional football finance, as well as the role of the league’s auditing body. Then it presents analysis of some key factors of financial performance, stressing the football clubs’ soft budget constraint and a vicious circle between the increasing commercial value of TV broadcasting rights,and skyrocketing club payrolls.

Suggested Citation

  • Andreef, Wladimir, 2016. "French professional football in European context: how much different?," Economic Policy, Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration, vol. 3, pages 108-137, June.
  • Handle: RePEc:rnp:ecopol:ep1637

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Stephen Hall & Stefan Szymanski & Andrew S. Zimbalist, 2002. "Testing Causality Between Team Performance and Payroll," Journal of Sports Economics, , vol. 3(2), pages 149-168, May.
    2. Wladimir Andreff, 2012. "Mondialisation économique du sport," Université Paris1 Panthéon-Sorbonne (Post-Print and Working Papers) halshs-00681921, HAL.
    3. J. Kornai & E. Maskin & G. Roland., 2004. "Understanding the Soft Budget Constraint," VOPROSY ECONOMIKI, N.P. Redaktsiya zhurnala "Voprosy Economiki", vol. 12.
    4. Douglas Staiger & James H. Stock, 1997. "Instrumental Variables Regression with Weak Instruments," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 65(3), pages 557-586, May.
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    6. Wladimir Andreff, 2007. "French Football: A Financial Crisis Rooted in Weak Governance," Université Paris1 Panthéon-Sorbonne (Post-Print and Working Papers) halshs-00270019, HAL.
    7. Alessandro Baroncelli & Umberto Lago, 2006. "Italian Football," Journal of Sports Economics, , vol. 7(1), pages 13-28, February.
    8. Peter Dawson & Paul Downward, 2011. "Participation, Spectatorship and Media Coverage in Sport: Some Initial Insights," Chapters,in: Contemporary Issues in Sports Economics, chapter 2 Edward Elgar Publishing.
    9. Wladimir Andreff, 2014. "Building Blocks for a Disequilibrium Model of a European Team Sports League," International Journal of Sport Finance, Fitness Information Technology, vol. 9(1), pages 20-38, February.
    10. Frédéric Bolotny, 2006. "Football in France," Chapters,in: Handbook on the Economics of Sport, chapter 53 Edward Elgar Publishing.
    11. Wladimir Andreff, 2009. "Equilibre compétitif et contrainte budgétaire dans une ligue de sport professionnel," Université Paris1 Panthéon-Sorbonne (Post-Print and Working Papers) halshs-00394910, HAL.
    12. Wladimir Andreff & Paul D. Staudohar, 2000. "The Evolving European Model of Professional Sports Finance," Journal of Sports Economics, , vol. 1(3), pages 257-276, August.
    13. Stefan Szymanski & Ron Smith, 1997. "The English Football Industry: profit, performance and industrial structure," International Review of Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 11(1), pages 135-153.
    14. S. M. Dobson & J. A. Goddard, 1998. "Performance and revenue in professional league football: evidence from Granger causality tests," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 30(12), pages 1641-1651.
    15. de Dios Tena, Juan & Forrest, David, 2007. "Within-season dismissal of football coaches: Statistical analysis of causes and consequences," European Journal of Operational Research, Elsevier, vol. 181(1), pages 362-373, August.
    16. Élisé Wendlassida Miningou & Valérie Vierstraete, 2012. "Efficience des Clubs Français de Football des Ligues 1 et 2," Revue d'économie politique, Dalloz, vol. 122(1), pages 37-66.
    17. Thomas Ericson, 2000. "The Bosman Case," Journal of Sports Economics, , vol. 1(3), pages 203-218, August.
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    More about this item


    football in France; economics of sports; economics of football; financing of football clubs; soft budget constraints;

    JEL classification:

    • L83 - Industrial Organization - - Industry Studies: Services - - - Sports; Gambling; Restaurants; Recreation; Tourism


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