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Trade Liberalization, Economic Growth, Energy Consumption and the Environment: Time Series Evidence from G-20 Economies


  • Baek, Jungho

    (University of Alaska Fairbanks)

  • Kim, Hyun Seok

    (Korea Energy Economics Institute)


This study examines the dynamic interrelationships between trade, income growth, energy consumption and CO2 emissions for G-20 economies in a framework of cointegrated vector autoregression (CVAR). Johansen's maximum likelihood procedure is used to estimate the coefficients of the cointegrated VAR. The results show that trade and income growth have a favorable effect on environmental quality for the developed G-20 member countries, while they have an adverse effect on the environment for the developing member countries. We also find that energy con- sumption tends to worsen environmental quality for both the developed and developing countries. Finally, it is found that trade and income to emission and energy causality holds for the developed countries; changes in degree of trade openness and income growth lead to corresponding changes in the rates of growth in emission and energy consumption. Emission and energy to trade and income causality, on the other hand, is found to hold for the developing countries; any shocks in emission and energy consumption cause corresponding fluctuations in income growth and trade openness.

Suggested Citation

  • Baek, Jungho & Kim, Hyun Seok, 2011. "Trade Liberalization, Economic Growth, Energy Consumption and the Environment: Time Series Evidence from G-20 Economies," East Asian Economic Review, Korea Institute for International Economic Policy, vol. 15(1), pages 3-32, March.
  • Handle: RePEc:ris:eaerev:0094
    DOI: 10.11644/KIEP.JEAI.2011.15.1.224

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    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.

    Cited by:

    1. Eko Mahar Diputra & Jungho Baek, 2018. "Is Growth Good or Bad For the Environment in Indonesia?," International Journal of Energy Economics and Policy, Econjournals, vol. 8(1), pages 1-4.
    2. Fuzhong Chen & Guohai Jiang & Getachew Magnar Kitila, 2021. "Trade Openness and CO 2 Emissions: The Heterogeneous and Mediating Effects for the Belt and Road Countries," Sustainability, MDPI, vol. 13(4), pages 1-16, February.
    3. Njoh, Ambe J., 2021. "Renewable energy as a determinant of inter-country differentials in CO2 emissions in Africa," Renewable Energy, Elsevier, vol. 172(C), pages 1225-1232.
    4. Inmaculada Carrasco & Juan Sebastián Castillo-Valero & Carmen Córcoles & Marcos Carchano, 2021. "Greening Wine Exports? Changes in the Carbon Footprint of Spanish Wine Exports," IJERPH, MDPI, vol. 18(17), pages 1-13, August.
    5. Ahmed, Khalid & Rehman, Mujeeb Ur & Ozturk, Ilhan, 2017. "What drives carbon dioxide emissions in the long-run? Evidence from selected South Asian Countries," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 70(C), pages 1142-1153.
    6. Amantay Akbota & Jungho Baek, 2018. "The Environmental Consequences of Growth: Empirical Evidence from the Republic of Kazakhstan," Economies, MDPI, vol. 6(1), pages 1-11, March.
    7. Sinha, Avik & Shahbaz, Muhammad & Balsalobre, Daniel, 2017. "Exploring the Relationship between Energy Usage Segregation and Environmental Degradation in N-11 Countries," MPRA Paper 81212, University Library of Munich, Germany, revised 07 Sep 2017.
    8. Baek, Jungho, 2015. "Environmental Kuznets curve for CO2 emissions: The case of Arctic countries," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 50(C), pages 13-17.
    9. Muhammad Khan, 2020. "CO2 emissions and sustainable economic development: New evidence on the role of human capital," Sustainable Development, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 28(5), pages 1279-1288, September.
    10. Zoundi, Zakaria, 2017. "CO2 emissions, renewable energy and the Environmental Kuznets Curve, a panel cointegration approach," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 72(C), pages 1067-1075.
    11. Baek, Jungho, 2015. "A panel cointegration analysis of CO2 emissions, nuclear energy and income in major nuclear generating countries," Applied Energy, Elsevier, vol. 145(C), pages 133-138.
    12. Kebede, Shemelis, 2017. "Modeling Energy Consumption, CO2 Emissions and Economic Growth Nexus in Ethiopia: Evidence from ARDL Approach to Cointegration and Causality Analysis," MPRA Paper 83000, University Library of Munich, Germany.

    More about this item


    Cointegration; Energy; Environment; Growth; Income; Trade; Time-series analysis;
    All these keywords.

    JEL classification:

    • C32 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Multiple or Simultaneous Equation Models; Multiple Variables - - - Time-Series Models; Dynamic Quantile Regressions; Dynamic Treatment Effect Models; Diffusion Processes; State Space Models
    • F18 - International Economics - - Trade - - - Trade and Environment
    • Q56 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - Environmental Economics - - - Environment and Development; Environment and Trade; Sustainability; Environmental Accounts and Accounting; Environmental Equity; Population Growth


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