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Trade Openness and Real Exchange Rate: Some Evidence from Pakistan


  • Muhammad Zakaria

    () (Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, Islamabad, Pakistan)

  • Ahmed Bilal Ghauri

    (Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, Islamabad, Pakistan)


The paper studies the impact of trade openness on real exchange rate in Pakistan using quarterly data for the period 1972 to 2010. The study reveals a significant positive effect of trade openness on real exchange rate. Floating exchange rate system also depreciates the real exchange rate significantly. The results are robust to alternative trade openness measure and different model specifications. The results also highlight the role of other variables in determining the real exchange rate. Government consumptions and foreign direct investment significantly positively affect real exchange rate; while terms of trade, capital inflows, and capital accumulations have significant negative impacts on real exchange rate.

Suggested Citation

  • Muhammad Zakaria & Ahmed Bilal Ghauri, 2011. "Trade Openness and Real Exchange Rate: Some Evidence from Pakistan," Romanian Economic Journal, Department of International Business and Economics from the Academy of Economic Studies Bucharest, vol. 14(39), pages 201-229, March.
  • Handle: RePEc:rej:journl:v:14:y:2011:i:39:p:201-229

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Edwards, Sebastian, 1988. "Real and monetary determinants of real exchange rate behavior: Theory and evidence from developing countries," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 29(3), pages 311-341, November.
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    Cited by:

    1. Lucian Claudiu ANGHEL & Laurentiu-Mihai TREAPAT, 2015. "Main Economic Policies in order to Manage an Optimum Accession of Romania to the Euro Zone," Management Dynamics in the Knowledge Economy Journal, College of Management, National University of Political Studies and Public Administration, vol. 3(1), pages 151-169, March.

    More about this item


    Real Exchange rate; Trade Openness; Floating Exchange Rate;

    JEL classification:

    • C22 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Single Equation Models; Single Variables - - - Time-Series Models; Dynamic Quantile Regressions; Dynamic Treatment Effect Models; Diffusion Processes
    • F41 - International Economics - - Macroeconomic Aspects of International Trade and Finance - - - Open Economy Macroeconomics


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