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Le choix entre taxe unitaire et taxe ad valorem

  • François Boldron
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    [eng] In this paper, I propose a survey on the economic literature dealing with the balance between specific and ad vabrem taxation. Three lessons emerge from this literature. First, predominantly specific taxation leads to relatively high price and profits and a relatively low fiscal revenue. Second, no general rule indicate which type of taxation is the best instrument as this choice is closely link to the market structure and/or to the government's objective. Third, even if a lot of works have been done on this debate, there still exist many gaps to fill. [fre] L'objectif principal de cet article est de faire le point sur la littérature économique traitant du choix entre taxe ad valorem (taxe sur la valeur des ventes) et taxe unitaire (taxe sur le volume des ventes). Trois enseignements majeurs sont mis en évidence. Premièrement, une prédominance de la taxe unitaire conduit à des prix, des profits, une qualité relativement élevés, et une recette fiscale plutôt faible. Deuxièmement, il n'existe pas de règle générale permettant de statuer sur le choix du type de taxe à utiliser. En effet, ce choix est étroitement lié à la structure du marché étudié et à l'objectif poursuivi par le gouvernement. Troisièmement, même s'il y a eu beaucoup d'avancées, il existe encore de nombreuses zones d'ombres qui peuvent faire l'objet de travaux intéressants.

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    Article provided by Programme National Persée in its journal Revue française d'économie.

    Volume (Year): 17 (2003)
    Issue (Month): 3 ()
    Pages: 109-128

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    Handle: RePEc:prs:rfreco:rfeco_0769-0479_2003_num_17_3_1468
    Note: DOI:10.3406/rfeco.2003.1468
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    1. D. B. Suits & R. A. Musgrave, 1953. "Ad Valorem and Unit Taxes Compared," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 67(4), pages 598-604.
    2. Myles,Gareth D., 1995. "Public Economics," Cambridge Books, Cambridge University Press, number 9780521497695, April.
    3. Helmuth Cremer & Firouz Gahvari & Norbert Ladoux, 1999. "La taxation des biens polluants," Revue Française d'Économie, Programme National Persée, vol. 14(2), pages 33-60.
    4. Guesnerie Roger & Laffont Jean-jacques, 1978. "Taxing price makers," CEPREMAP Working Papers (Couverture Orange) 7806, CEPREMAP.
    5. Cremer, Helmuth & Thisse, Jacques-François, 1993. "Commodity Taxation in a Differentiated Oligopoly," IDEI Working Papers 25, Institut d'Économie Industrielle (IDEI), Toulouse.
    6. Besley, Timothy, 1989. "Commodity taxation and imperfect competition : A note on the effects of entry," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 40(3), pages 359-367, December.
    7. Delipalla, Sophia & O'Donnell, Owen, 2001. "Estimating tax incidence, market power and market conduct: The European cigarette industry," International Journal of Industrial Organization, Elsevier, vol. 19(6), pages 885-908, May.
    8. N. Gregory Mankiw & Michael D. Whinston, 1986. "Free Entry and Social Inefficiency," RAND Journal of Economics, The RAND Corporation, vol. 17(1), pages 48-58, Spring.
    9. Cremer, Helmuth & Thisse, Jacques-Francois, 1999. "On the taxation of polluting products in a differentiated industry," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 43(3), pages 575-594, March.
    10. Constantatos, Christos & Sartzetakis, Eftichios S., 1999. "On commodity taxation in vertically differentiated markets," International Journal of Industrial Organization, Elsevier, vol. 17(8), pages 1203-1217, November.
    11. Michael Keen, 1998. "The balance between specific and ad valorem taxation," Fiscal Studies, Institute for Fiscal Studies, vol. 19(1), pages 1-37, February.
    12. Diamond, Peter A & Mirrlees, James A, 1971. "Optimal Taxation and Public Production II: Tax Rules," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 61(3), pages 261-78, June.
    13. Skeath, Susan E. & Trandel, Gregory A., 1994. "A Pareto comparison of ad valorem and unit taxes in noncompetitive environments," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 53(1), pages 53-71, January.
    14. Laffont, Jean-Jacques, 1987. "Optimal taxation of a non-linear pricing monopolist," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 33(2), pages 137-155, July.
    15. Kowalczyk, Carsten & Skeath, Susan E., 1994. "Pareto ranking optimal tariffs under foreign monopoly," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 45(3), pages 355-359.
    16. Delipalla, Sofia & Keen, Michael, 1992. "The comparison between ad valorem and specific taxation under imperfect competition," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 49(3), pages 351-367, December.
    17. Shaffer, Sherrill, 1995. "Optimal Linear Taxation of Polluting Oligopolists," Journal of Regulatory Economics, Springer, vol. 7(1), pages 85-100, January.
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