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Libéralisme et justice sociale: la clause lockéenne des droits de propriété

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  • Ai-Thu Dang
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    [eng] J. Rawls' A Theory of Justice revitalizes the Anglo-Saxon debate on the nature of a just society. Both philosophers and economists have intervened in this debate. The aim of this article is to provide an overview of this debate through the reinterpretations of the Lockean proviso on property. The space of discussion is structured by the concepts property, liberty and equality. Two points will be outlined: first, Nozick and Steiner's reinterprations of the Lockean proviso on property reproduce two aspects of Locke's thought, possessive individualism and egalitarianism. Secondly, logical difficulties in Nozick and Steiner's analysis are emphasized. Nozick's theory of justice takes place within the framework of inter- individual contractual relationships whilst Steiner's analysis is based on initial generationel equality but does not take into account the processus of domination or exploitation, which underlies the problem of inequality of ownership. Can we really construct a theory of justice in the absence of a holist entity or principle? [fre] Le débat anglo-saxon sur la nature d'une société juste, relancé par la publication du livre de J. Rawls, Théorie de la justice, mobilise à la fois des philosophes et des économistes. Le but de cet article est de donner un aperçu de ce débat foisonnant à travers l'analyse des multiples reformulations de la clause lockéenne des droits de propriété. La combinatoire de la propriété, de la liberté et de l'égalité organise l'espace de discussion sur la justice. Deux points seront mis en évidence : d'une part, les reformulations de la clause lockéenne des droits de propriété par R. Nozick et H. Steiner reproduisent les deux figures polaires en germe dans la pensée de Locke, l'individualisme pro- priétariste et l'égalitarisme. D'autre part, nous soulignerons les difficultés logiques qu'il y a à penser essentiellement la justice dans un cadre dominé par les relations contractuelles interindividuelles (Nozick), ou sur la base d'une égalité de départ à chaque génération sans pour autant tenir compte du processus de domination ou d'exploitation à l'œuvre dans le problème de l'inégalité des possessions (Steiner). Peut-on fonder vraiment une société juste sans recourir à une entité ou à un principe holiste qui surplombe les individus?

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    Article provided by Programme National Persée in its journal Revue française d'économie.

    Volume (Year): 10 (1995)
    Issue (Month): 4 ()
    Pages: 205-238

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    Handle: RePEc:prs:rfreco:rfeco_0769-0479_1995_num_10_4_994
    Note: DOI:10.3406/rfeco.1995.994
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    1. Hausman, Daniel M & McPherson, Michael S, 1993. "Taking Ethics Seriously: Economics and Contemporary Moral Philosophy," Journal of Economic Literature, American Economic Association, vol. 31(2), pages 671-731, June.
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