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La distribution mondiale des revenus entre 1950 et 1977

Listed author(s):
  • François Bourguignon
  • Christian Morrisson
  • Albert Berry

[fre] Cette étude présente pour la première fois des estimations annuelles de la distribution mondiale des révenus réels sur une période longue, les pays socialistes sont exclus, puis inclus, la distribution interne est prise en compte. L'inégalité mondiale des consommations (pays socialistes exclus) a augmenté depuis 1950 ; mais on ne peut distinguer aucune tendance significative si l'on exclut les pays socialistes ou si l'on considère l'inégalité des revenus. De toute façon, le bilan s'avère favorable aux groupes à revenu intermédiaire aux dépens des plus pauvres qui se trouvent concentrés de plus en plus en Asie. La part des plus riches dans les revenus a baissé, mais non pour les consommations. Une analyse de décomposition effectuée sur les variations d'indicateurs d'inégalité a permis d'identifier les facteurs d'inégalité et d'apprécier leur rôle. A long terme, la croissance démographique rapide des pays les plus pauvres, la croissance économique, lente dans ces pays, rapide dans les pays développés, Etats-Unis exclus, ont accru l'inégalité. A court terme, la conjoncture économique en Chine, en Inde et aux Etats-Unis est le premier facteur de variation. On a tenté d'analyser les conséquences du nouvel ordre économique international sur l'inégalité mondiale depuis 1973. [eng] trated in Asia, has worsened. The top 10% of the world population has lost some of its share in world incarne but not in world consumption. A decomposition of the observed changes in world inequality based on the elasticities of decomposable inequality measures gives estimates of countries' contributions to these changes. Inequality increasing factors are the faster demographic growth and the slower economic (GNP/capita) growth in poorest countries, and the above average economic growth in developed countries, US exclused. In the short run, fluctuations of inequality measures are mostly explained by the economic performances of a few and large countries : China, India, USA. An attempt is mode to study the effect of changes in international economic order on world inequality since 1973.

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Article provided by Programme National Persée in its journal Revue économique.

Volume (Year): 33 (1982)
Issue (Month): 3 ()
Pages: 379-425

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Handle: RePEc:prs:reveco:reco_0035-2764_1982_num_33_3_408663
Note: DOI:10.3406/reco.1982.408663
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  1. Ahluwalia, Montek S. & Carter, Nicholas G. & Chenery, Hollis B., 1979. "Growth and poverty in developing countries," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 6(3), pages 299-341, August.
  2. Shorrocks, A F, 1980. "The Class of Additively Decomposable Inequality Measures," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 48(3), pages 613-625, April.
  3. Bourguignon, Francois, 1979. "Decomposable Income Inequality Measures," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 47(4), pages 901-920, July.
  4. A. B. Atkinson & F. Bourguignon, 1982. "The Comparison of Multi-Dimensioned Distributions of Economic Status," Review of Economic Studies, Oxford University Press, vol. 49(2), pages 183-201.
  5. Whalley, John, 1979. "The Worldwide Income Distribution: Some Speculative Calculations," Review of Income and Wealth, International Association for Research in Income and Wealth, vol. 25(3), pages 261-276, September.
  6. Kravis, Irving B & Heston, Alan W & Summers, Robert, 1978. "Real GDP per Capita for More Than One Hundred Countries," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 88(350), pages 215-242, June.
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