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Proximité et localisation

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  • Alain Rallet
  • André Torre

Abstract

[eng] Proximity and location - The objective of this article is to pave the way for an analysis of the relations between proximity and localization. (I) We distinguish two types of proximity (geographical proximity and organized proximity) and propose a grid of analysis of the main models of geographic organization of activities by articulating both types of proximity. We then introduce the phenomenon of tension between geographical proximity and organized proximity. (II) Organized proximity offers powerful mechanisms of longdistance coordination which constitute the foundation of the increasing geographic development of socio- economic interactions. (III) We then show that there is a disjunction between the need for geographical proximity and co-localization of actors, by introducing professional mobility and temporary geographical proximity. We also emphasize the ability of big organizations to manage their presence in different whereas smaller organizations are more constrained by fixed co-localizations which are only needed for certain phases of their interactions. (IV) Finally, we raise the question of the negative effects of geographical proximity. In the case of limited support- goods, geographical proximity creates tensions between the actors who use them and tends to damage the local relations. In this case geographical proximity plays against organized proximity. However the negative externalities of geographical proximity can be limited by integrating them within organizations or institutions, that is through a re- composed organized proximity. [fre] L'objectif de cet article est de proposer une analyse des relations entre proximité et localisation et, plus particulièrement, entre besoins de proximité et co-localisation des activités. Deux types de proximité (géographique et organisée) sont définis dans la première section. Leur articulation fournit une grille d'analyse de la manière dont les acteurs économiques se « situent » aujourd'hui dans l'espace géographique. Dans la deuxième section, nous remettons en cause la confusion souvent faite dans la littérature entre agglomération et interactions de proximité géographique. Puis nous soulignons l'importance des phénomènes d'encastrement social et institutionnel et abordons les phénomènes d'ubiquité qui caractérisent aujourd'hui les comportements des agents économiques. Dans la troisième section, nous introduisons la mobilité des personnes. On oublie souvent que les besoins de proximité géographique (pour réaliser une coopération, par exemple) ne supposent pas nécessairement que les agents soient localisés les uns près des autres. Pour les personnes se déplaçant, la contrainte de proximité devient relative. Enfin, la proximité géographique n'a pas que des vertus positives. Elle peut être facteur de conflits, de rivalités ou d'externalités négatives... qui trouvent une partie de leurs solutions dans la mobilisation des ressources de la proximité organisée. Cette analyse fait l'objet de la quatrième section.

Suggested Citation

  • Alain Rallet & André Torre, 2004. "Proximité et localisation," Économie rurale, Programme National Persée, vol. 280(1), pages 25-41.
  • Handle: RePEc:prs:recoru:ecoru_0013-0559_2004_num_280_1_5470 Note: DOI:10.3406/ecoru.2004.5470
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    Cited by:

    1. Véronique SAINT GES (E3i-IFReDE-GRES & INRA), 2006. "Environmental policies relating to the use of pesticides: proximities and innovations (In French)," Cahiers du GRES (2002-2009) 2006-06, Groupement de Recherches Economiques et Sociales.
    2. Gadille, Martine & MÉhaut, Philippe & courault, Bruno, 2013. "Compétences et régulation des marchés du travail dans les pôles de compétitivité : le cas du pôle Pégase," Revue d'économie régionale et urbaine, Editions NecPlus, vol. 2013(02), pages 339-361, June.
    3. Hussler, Caroline & Ronde, Patrick, 2007. "The impact of cognitive communities on the diffusion of academic knowledge: Evidence from the networks of inventors of a French university," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 36(2), pages 288-302, March.
    4. Marie-Claude BELIS-BERGOUIGNAN (GREThA UMR CNRS 5113), 2009. "An evolutionist analysis of sectoral dynamics (In French)," Cahiers du GREThA 2009-18, Groupe de Recherche en Economie Théorique et Appliquée.
    5. Damien TALBOT (E3i, IFReDE-GRES), 2005. "Organisational proximity: an institutionalist point of view. The case of EADS (In French)," Cahiers du GRES (2002-2009) 2005-22, Groupement de Recherches Economiques et Sociales.
    6. Sonia Adam-Ledunois & Jérôme Guédon & Sophie Renault, 2008. "Les Parcs Industriels Fournisseurs ou le choix de la proximité géographique," Post-Print halshs-00691127, HAL.
    7. Amélie Goncalves, 2013. "Les organisations logistiques à promouvoir dans le cadre des Politiques de Transport Durable de Marchandises : la question des circuits de proximité," Post-Print hal-00962231, HAL.
    8. Marie Coris, 2008. "Proximités et délocalisations : le cas du logiciel," Revue d'économie régionale et urbaine, Armand Colin, vol. 0(3), pages 361-380.
    9. Sophie Masson & Romain Petiot, 2013. "Logistique et territoire : multiplicité des interactions et forces de régulation," Géographie, économie, société, Lavoisier, vol. 15(4), pages 385-412.
    10. Giacomini, Corrado & Mancini, Maria Cecilia, 2015. "Organisation as a key factor in Localised Agri-Food Systems (LAFS)," Bio-based and Applied Economics Journal, Italian Association of Agricultural and Applied Economics (AIEAA), issue 1, April.

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