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Les performances des entreprises françaises implantées à l’étranger

  • Jean-Marc Siroen
  • Frédéric Peltrault
  • Alexandre Gazaniol

Cet article évalue les performances des firmes multinationales dans l’industrie manu- facturière française, et les compare à celles des entreprises uniquement exportatrices et domestiques. Les primes à l’implantation s’avèrent très significatives et dépassent lar- gement les primes à l’exportation, indépendamment de la taille, de la conjoncture et du secteur d’activité. Cette hiérarchie se vérifie en tous points de la distribution condition- nelle de chaque variable par une régression quantile. Par ailleurs, les primes à l’implan- tation s’accroissent avec le nombre de filiales à l’étranger et sont plus marquées pour les filiales de groupe (en particulier étranger). Les meilleures performances des entre- prises implantées à l’étranger s’expliquent en partie par un effet de sélection : investir à l’étranger s’accompagne de coûts fixes importants et nécessite un niveau de produc- tivité relativement élevé. Toutefois, les firmes qui s’implantent pour la première fois à l’étranger, les primo-investisseurs, connaissent également une croissance significative de leurs ventes, de leur valeur ajoutée, de leurs effectifs et de leurs exportations ex post. L’implantation à l’étranger récompense ainsi les meilleures entreprises, qui consolident leur avantage par rapport aux autres firmes. Ce constat semble particulièrement vrai pour les filiales de groupes, qui se caractérisent à la fois par un effet de sélection et des effets d’apprentissage accrus.

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Article provided by Programme National Persée in its journal Economie et statistique.

Volume (Year): 435 (2010)
Issue (Month): 1 ()
Pages: 149-167

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Handle: RePEc:prs:ecstat:estat_0336-1454_2010_num_435_1_9582
Note: DOI:10.3406/estat.2010.9582
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