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D'un droit de propriété intellectuelle sur le vivant aux firmes de génomique : vers une marchandisation de la connaissance scientifique sur le génome humain

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  • Fabienne Orsi
  • Jean-Paul Moatti

Abstract

[fre] Cet article analyse les conditions d’émergence aux Etats-Unis d’une nouvelle génération de firmes de biotechnologies qui, spécialisées dans la découverte de gènes humains -activité scientifique jusque-là promue par les systèmes de recherche publique -vise la commercialisation de ces découvertes. L’article montre que, saisie dans la dynamique de développement du secteur des biotechnologies spécifique au contexte nord-américain, la condition majeure de cette émergence tient à l’instauration d''un droit de propriété intellectuelle sur le vivant dont l’évolution a conduit au basculement des découvertes scientifiques dans le champ des brevets. L’article conclut sur les conséquences de la diffusion de ce basculement, notamment à l’Europe, et sur l’essor de ces firmes de génomique sur le changement de statut de la connaissance scientifique. [eng] From Intellectual Property Rights on Living Matter to Genomics Firms : towards Selling Scientific Knowledge of the Human Genome.. This article analyses the conditions underlying the emergence of a new generation of biotechnology firms on the American market specialised in the discovery of human genes -a scientific activity previously promoted by public research systems -and the sale of these discoveries. The article shows that, within the specific growth dynamics of the biotechnology sector in the North-American context, the main factor behind the emergence of these firms has been the creation of intellectual property rights on living matter. The development of these rights has led to the patenting of scientific discoveries. The last part of the article discusses the consequences of disseminating the use of patents, particularly in Europe, and the change in status of scientific knowledge triggered by the rise of genomics firms.

Suggested Citation

  • Fabienne Orsi & Jean-Paul Moatti, 2001. "D'un droit de propriété intellectuelle sur le vivant aux firmes de génomique : vers une marchandisation de la connaissance scientifique sur le génome humain," Économie et Prévision, Programme National Persée, vol. 150(4), pages 123-138.
  • Handle: RePEc:prs:ecoprv:ecop_0249-4744_2001_num_150_4_6355
    DOI: 10.3406/ecop.2001.6355
    Note: DOI:10.3406/ecop.2001.6355
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. Rosenberg, Nathan & Nelson, Richard R., 1994. "American universities and technical advance in industry," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 23(3), pages 323-348, May.
    2. Zucker, Lynne G. & Darby, Michael R., 1997. "Present at the biotechnological revolution: transformation of technological identity for a large incumbent pharmaceutical firm," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 26(4-5), pages 429-446, December.
    3. Janusz A. Ordover, 1991. "A Patent System for Both Diffusion and Exclusion," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 5(1), pages 43-60, Winter.
    4. Paul A. Gompers & Josh Lerner, 1998. "What Drives Venture Capital Fundraising?," Brookings Papers on Economic Activity, Economic Studies Program, The Brookings Institution, vol. 29(1998 Micr), pages 149-204.
    5. Dominique Guellec & Isabelle Kabla, 1994. "Le brevet : un instrument d'appropriation des innovations technologiques," Économie et Statistique, Programme National Persée, vol. 275(1), pages 83-94.
    6. Isabelle Liotard, 1999. "Les droits de propriété intellectuelle, une nouvelle arme stratégique des firmes," Revue d'Économie Industrielle, Programme National Persée, vol. 89(1), pages 69-84.
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    Cited by:

    1. Cecilia Rikap, 2017. "The Corporization of a Public University with Free Undergraduate Education: Endangering Autonomy at the University of Buenos Aires," World Economic Review, World Economics Association, vol. 2017(8), pages 44-59, April.

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