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Évolution, individualisme et auto-organisation chez Hayek


  • David.W Versailles


[fre] Hayek définit que l'ordre spontané et l'évolution sont des concepts jumeaux. La critique de la théorie hayekienne de l'évolution culturelle se limite d'ordinaire à exposer que Hayek a adopté une méthodologie holiste pour défendre l'ordre spontané et le libéralisme politique. Ce travail explique que le biais est plus insidieux : il provient de l'orientation historiciste qui contraint l'individualisme par la référence à l' auto-organisation. La démarche hayekienne porte sur le rapport entre structure et évolution, considéré comme explication du comportement individuel et comme explication de l'existence de règles sociales spécifiques. Le deuxième problème conduit Hayek à oublier que son acteur est toujours l'individu subjectif ; mais il n'est pas possible d'utiliser cet argument contre l'individualisme méthodologique. La simple suppression du biais prescriptif en faveur des systèmes autoorganisés permet de reformuler la pensée de Hayek dans un contexte cognitif totalement cohérent. Malheureusement pour Hayek, on en devient alors popperien. [eng] Hayek defines evolution and spontaneous order as twins ideas. Criticizing his cultural evolutionism is ordinary limited to explain Hayek adopted a wholist methodology in order to advocate in favor of the political aspects of classical liberalism and spontaneous order. This research explains the bias is more subtle : the historicist tension in favor of spontaneous order introduces a constraint for individualism. The Hayekian program deals with the relationship between structure and evolution, considered both as an explanation of individual behavior and as an explanation of the existence of a specific set of (social) rules. The later issue raises a tension against the individual subjectivity, but this flaw cannot be drawn against the individual methodology itself. Removing the prescriptive advocacy for self-organized systems provides us with a consistent framework centered on the individual cognition. Unfortunately for Hayek, ones who adopt it, turns out to be Popperians.

Suggested Citation

  • David.W Versailles, 1999. "Évolution, individualisme et auto-organisation chez Hayek," Cahiers d'Économie Politique, Programme National Persée, vol. 35(1), pages 63-88.
  • Handle: RePEc:prs:caecpo:cep_0154-8344_1999_num_35_1_1262
    DOI: 10.3406/cep.1999.1262
    Note: DOI:10.3406/cep.1999.1262

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Petroni Angelo, 1992. "Le Legs De Hayek," Journal des Economistes et des Etudes Humaines, De Gruyter, vol. 3(4), pages 1-16, December.
    2. Elster,Jon, 1983. "Explaining Technical Change," Cambridge Books, Cambridge University Press, number 9780521270724, December.
    3. repec:ucp:bkecon:9780226320625 is not listed on IDEAS
    4. Radnitzky Gerard & Bouillon Hardy, 1995. "Values And Social Order," Journal des Economistes et des Etudes Humaines, De Gruyter, vol. 6(1), pages 1-15, March.
    5. Bruce Caldwell, 1997. "Hayek and Socialism," Journal of Economic Literature, American Economic Association, vol. 35(4), pages 1856-1890, December.
    6. Hodgson, Geoffrey M., 1991. "Hayek's Theory of Cultural Evolution: An Evaluation in the Light of Vanberg's Critique," Economics and Philosophy, Cambridge University Press, vol. 7(1), pages 67-82, April.
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    Cited by:

    1. Marlyse Pouchol, 2004. "pensee economique. Les transformations hayékiennes du libéralisme smithien," Innovations, De Boeck Université, vol. 19(1), pages 219-236.

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