IDEAS home Printed from
   My bibliography  Save this article

The Political Economy of Bangladesh's Large and Growing Trade Deficits with India


  • Akhtar Hossain

    (IMF—Singapore Regional Training Institute, Singapor.)

  • Rizwana Salim Rashid

    (University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, lllinois, USA.)


After remaining low throughout the 1970s and 1980s, Bangladesh's trade deficits (as percent of GDP) with India have been rising sharply since 1993. The size of its illegal trade deficits with India is also large and perceived to be rising since the early 1990s. Thus, instead of interdependence between two trading neighbours at the same stage of development, the Bangladesh-India trade relations suggest an absolute dependence of Bangladesh on India. The debate that has now generated in Bangladesh from such a onesided trade flow has two polar themes. At one extreme are those commentators who consider Bangladesh's large and growing trade deficits with India as a "natural and positive development" on the grounds that India is believed to be at a higher stage of development and to have gained technological maturity in the production of those goods that Bangladesh imports from India. The alternative view is that Bangladesh's large and growing trade deficits are a recent phenomenon and have nothing to do with India's technological maturity or prowess. As an explanation, such deficits are cnnsidered to be the result both of India's deep devaluation policy and tariff and non-tiff barriers to Bangladesh's exports to its markets. This paper examines the disaggregated structure of trade, as well as the revealed comparative advantage of Bangladesh and India and finds no support for the thesis of Bangladesh's technological imports from India on grounds of their maturity. It then examines the sensitivity of trade flows between the two countries to exchange rates and the possible role of trade liberalisation in generating trade deficits within the framework of intra-industry trade models for differentiated products. The available evidence suggests that through subsidies, interventions and deep devaluation policy, India has artificially created a comparative advantage over Bangladesh in differentiated products. India has also managed to keep its markets closed for Bangladesh's products despite trade negotiations, between the governments. This gives credence to the suggestion that Bangladesh's trade with India is neither fair nor competitive. Finally, the paper considers the political economy of the large and growing trade imbalances between them before drawing policy conclusions.

Suggested Citation

  • Akhtar Hossain & Rizwana Salim Rashid, 1999. "The Political Economy of Bangladesh's Large and Growing Trade Deficits with India," The Pakistan Development Review, Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, vol. 38(1), pages 25-68.
  • Handle: RePEc:pid:journl:v:38:y:1999:i:1:p:25-68

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL:
    Download Restriction: no

    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Leamer, Edward E. & Levinsohn, James, 1995. "International trade theory: The evidence," Handbook of International Economics,in: G. M. Grossman & K. Rogoff (ed.), Handbook of International Economics, edition 1, volume 3, chapter 26, pages 1339-1394 Elsevier.
    2. Baumol, William J, 1982. "Contestable Markets: An Uprising in the Theory of Industry Structure," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 72(1), pages 1-15, March.
    3. Dickey, David A & Fuller, Wayne A, 1981. "Likelihood Ratio Statistics for Autoregressive Time Series with a Unit Root," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 49(4), pages 1057-1072, June.
    4. Jagdish Bhagwati, 1996. "Political Economy And International Economics: Jagdish Bhagwati," MIT Press Books, The MIT Press, edition 1, volume 1, number 0262522187 edited by Douglas A. Irwin, January.
    5. Blumenthal, Tuvia, 1980. "Factor Proportions and Choice of Technology: The Japanese Experience," Economic Development and Cultural Change, University of Chicago Press, vol. 28(3), pages 547-559, April.
    6. Salim Rashid, 1988. "Quality in Contestable Markets: A Historical Problem?," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 103(1), pages 245-249.
    7. Avinash K. Dixit & Gene M. Grossman, 1982. "Trade and Protection with Multistage Production," Review of Economic Studies, Oxford University Press, vol. 49(4), pages 583-594.
    8. Malcolm Abbott, 1996. "Australian-South African Trade: Recent Structure And Future Prospects," Economic Papers, The Economic Society of Australia, vol. 15(4), pages 54-63, December.
    9. Lee, Jaimin, 1995. "Comparative advantage in manufacturing as a determinant of industrialization: The Korean case," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 23(7), pages 1195-1214, July.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)


    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.

    Cited by:

    1. Kumar, Sushil & Ahmed, Shahid, 2014. "Growth and Pattern of Intra-Industry Trade between India and Bangladesh: 1975–2010," MPRA Paper 61113, University Library of Munich, Germany, revised 29 Dec 2014.

    More about this item


    Access and download statistics


    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:pid:journl:v:38:y:1999:i:1:p:25-68. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Khurram Iqbal). General contact details of provider: .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.