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The Stop-Loss Start-Gain Paradox and Option Valuation: A New Decomposition into Intrinsic and Time Value

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  • Carr, Peter P
  • Jarrow, Robert A

Abstract

The downside risk in a leveraged stock position can be eliminated by using stop-loss orders. The upside potential of such a position can be captured using contingent buy orders. The terminal payoff to this stop-loss start-gain strategy is identical to that of a call option, but the strategy costs less initially. This article resolves this paradox by showing that the strategy is not self-financing for continuous stock- price processes of unbounded variation. The resolution of the paradox leads to a new decomposition of an option's price into its intrinsic and time value. When stock price follows geometric Brownian motion, this decomposition is proven to be mathematically equivalent to the Black-Scholes (1973) formula. Article published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Financial Studies in its journal, The Review of Financial Studies.

Suggested Citation

  • Carr, Peter P & Jarrow, Robert A, 1990. "The Stop-Loss Start-Gain Paradox and Option Valuation: A New Decomposition into Intrinsic and Time Value," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 3(3), pages 469-492.
  • Handle: RePEc:oup:rfinst:v:3:y:1990:i:3:p:469-92
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    Cited by:

    1. Joon Y. Park, 2004. "The Spatial Analysis of Time Series," Econometric Society 2004 North American Winter Meetings 595, Econometric Society.
    2. Zhi Jun Guo & Eckhard Platen, 2012. "The Small And Large Time Implied Volatilities In The Minimal Market Model," International Journal of Theoretical and Applied Finance (IJTAF), World Scientific Publishing Co. Pte. Ltd., vol. 15(08), pages 1-23.
    3. Jarrow, Robert & Protter, Philip, 2005. "Large traders, hidden arbitrage, and complete markets," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 29(11), pages 2803-2820, November.
    4. Michele Bonollo & Luca Di Persio & Luca Mammi & Immacolata Oliva, 2017. "Estimating the Counterparty Risk Exposure by using the Brownian Motion Local Time," Papers 1704.03244, arXiv.org.
    5. Salopek, D. M., 2002. "A new class of nearly self-financing strategies," Statistics & Probability Letters, Elsevier, vol. 56(1), pages 69-75, January.
    6. A. Bellier-Delienne, 2005. "Synthèse sur les Options de Livraison dans les Contrats à Terme," THEMA Working Papers 2005-09, THEMA (THéorie Economique, Modélisation et Applications), Université de Cergy-Pontoise.
    7. Jarrow, Robert & Protter, Philip, 2012. "Discrete versus continuous time models: Local martingales and singular processes in asset pricing theory," Finance Research Letters, Elsevier, vol. 9(2), pages 58-62.
    8. Zura Kakushadze, 2015. "Coping with Negative Short-Rates," Papers 1502.06074, arXiv.org, revised Aug 2015.
    9. Mark Broadie & Jérôme B. Detemple, 1996. "American Options on Dividend-Paying Assets," CIRANO Working Papers 96s-16, CIRANO.
    10. Nicolas Perkowski & David J. Promel, 2014. "Local times for typical price paths and pathwise Tanaka formulas," Papers 1405.4421, arXiv.org, revised Apr 2015.
    11. Aleksandar Mijatović, 2010. "Local time and the pricing of time-dependent barrier options," Finance and Stochastics, Springer, vol. 14(1), pages 13-48, January.
    12. J. Scheinkman & W. Xiong, 2002. "Overconfidence, Short-Sale Constraints and Bubbles," Princeton Economic Theory Working Papers 98734966f1c1a57373801367f, David K. Levine.
    13. A. M. G. Cox & David Hobson & Jan Ob{l}'oj, 2007. "Pathwise inequalities for local time: Applications to Skorokhod embeddings and optimal stopping," Papers math/0702173, arXiv.org, revised Nov 2008.
    14. Xavier Warin, 2016. "The Asset Liability Management problem of a nuclear operator : a numerical stochastic optimization approach," Papers 1611.04877, arXiv.org.
    15. Kraft, Holger, 2007. "Pitfalls in static superhedging of barrier options," Finance Research Letters, Elsevier, vol. 4(1), pages 2-9, March.
    16. Peter Carr & Zura Kakushadze, 2015. "FX Options in Target Zone," Papers 1512.01527, arXiv.org, revised Jul 2016.
    17. repec:taf:quantf:v:17:y:2017:i:4:p:515-529 is not listed on IDEAS
    18. Lim, Terence & Lo, Andrew W. & Merton, Robert C. & Scholes, Myron S., 2006. "The Derivatives Sourcebook," Foundations and Trends(R) in Finance, now publishers, vol. 1(5–6), pages 365-572, April.

    More about this item

    JEL classification:

    • B26 - Schools of Economic Thought and Methodology - - History of Economic Thought since 1925 - - - Financial Economics
    • O16 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Economic Development - - - Financial Markets; Saving and Capital Investment; Corporate Finance and Governance
    • E44 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Money and Interest Rates - - - Financial Markets and the Macroeconomy

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