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Does Extension Work? Impacts of a Program to Assist Limited-Resource Farmers in Virginia

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  • Ebere Akobundu
  • Jeffrey Alwang
  • Albert Essel
  • George W. Norton
  • Abebayehu Tegene

Abstract

In this article the economic impacts of Virginia State University's Small Farm Outreach, Training, and Technical Assistance Program are assessed. Impacts are measured in terms of program effect on incomes of limited-resource participant farmers compared with their net farm incomes had they not participated. The program appears to significantly increase net farm income, provided there is sufficient intensity of participation. A single visit by an agent had no significant effect on income, suggesting a rationale for deepening participation intensity before broadening it. Aggregate program benefits may approach $5 million per year (for a cost of a few hundred thousand dollars). Copyright 2004, Oxford University Press.

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  • Ebere Akobundu & Jeffrey Alwang & Albert Essel & George W. Norton & Abebayehu Tegene, 2004. "Does Extension Work? Impacts of a Program to Assist Limited-Resource Farmers in Virginia," Review of Agricultural Economics, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association, vol. 26(3), pages 361-372.
  • Handle: RePEc:oup:revage:v:26:y:2004:i:3:p:361-372
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    File URL: http://hdl.handle.net/10.1111/j.1467-9353.2004.00185.x
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    1. Heckman, James J, 1990. "Varieties of Selection Bias," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 80(2), pages 313-318, May.
    2. Oral Capps & Randall A. Kramer, 1985. "Analysis of Food Stamp Participation Using Qualitative Choice Models," American Journal of Agricultural Economics, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association, vol. 67(1), pages 49-59.
    3. J. William Levedahl, 1995. "How Much Can Informational Outreach Programs Increase Food Stamp Program Participation?," American Journal of Agricultural Economics, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association, vol. 77(2), pages 343-352.
    4. Davidson, Russell & MacKinnon, James G., 1993. "Estimation and Inference in Econometrics," OUP Catalogue, Oxford University Press, number 9780195060119.
    5. Robinson, Chris, 1989. "The Joint Determination of Union Status and Union Wage Effects: Some Tests of Alternative Models," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 97(3), pages 639-667, June.
    6. James Heckman, 1997. "Instrumental Variables: A Study of Implicit Behavioral Assumptions Used in Making Program Evaluations," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 32(3), pages 441-462.
    7. McLean-Meyinsse, Patricia E. & Hui, Jianguo & Joseph, Randolph, Jr., 1994. "An Empirical Analysis Of Louisiana Small Farmers' Involvement In The Conservation Reserve Program," Journal of Agricultural and Applied Economics, Southern Agricultural Economics Association, vol. 26(02), December.
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    Cited by:

    1. Francisca Henriquez, 2009. "Microcrédito y su Impacto: Un Acercamiento con Datos Chilenos," OVE Working Papers 0309, Inter-American Development Bank, Office of Evaluation and Oversight (OVE).
    2. Doris Läpple & Thia Hennessy & Carol Newman, 2013. "Quantifying the Economic Return to Participatory Extension Programmes in Ireland: an Endogenous Switching Regression Analysis," Journal of Agricultural Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 64(2), pages 467-482, June.
    3. José Miguel Benavente & Gustavo Crespi & Alessandro Maffioli, 2007. "The Impact of National Research Funds: An Evaluation of the Chilean FONDECYT," OVE Working Papers 0307, Inter-American Development Bank, Office of Evaluation and Oversight (OVE).
    4. Alessandro Maffioli & Diego Ubfal & Gonzalo Vazquez-Bare & Pedro Cerdan-Infantes, 2013. "Improving technology adoption in agriculture through extension services: evidence from Uruguay," Journal of Development Effectiveness, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 5(1), pages 64-81, March.
    5. Faure, Guy & Davis, Kristin E. & Ragasa, Catherine & Franzel, Steven & Babu, Suresh Chandra, 2016. "Framework to assess performance and impact of pluralistic agricultural extension systems: The best-fit framework revisited:," IFPRI discussion papers 1567, International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI).
    6. Pedro Cerdán-Infantes & Alessandro Maffioli & Diego Ubfal, 2008. "The Impact of Agricultural Extension Services: The Case of Grape Production in Argentina," OVE Working Papers 0508, Inter-American Development Bank, Office of Evaluation and Oversight (OVE).

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