IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/a/liu/liucej/v6y2009i2p325-346.html
   My bibliography  Save this article

China and India - a Note on the Influence of Hierarchy vs. Polyarchy on Economic Growth

Author

Listed:
  • Michael Keren

Abstract

This note tries to apply two versions of Sah and Stiglitz's "The Architecture of Economic Systems: Hierarchies and Polyarchies" model (SandS) to highlight some important differences between the development paths of India, the largest democracy, and China, the largest of the few remaining communist ruled economies. It argues that the original SandS model is applicable to private organisations but not to governments, to which a revised model is applied. It is the reliability of the government's decisions and the ability of the investor to rely on them that the modified SandS model tries to capture. As a communist country, China is as centralized as a huge polity of its size can be. A decision of the central authorities, a contract or promise confirmed by Beijing, can be relied upon. This provides a degree of security to the investor that his contract will be honoured and she will not be dispossessed. In the Indian federation the investor has to assure herself that all authorities involved agree to support her project, because any agency that has any say may be able to derail it. These differences are accounted for by the adjusted Sah and Stiglitz model. These differences affect not only the total quantity of investments but also their composition. Clearly, no claim is made or implied that the models introduced below provide the explanation for the differences in the development paths of these two Asian giants in the past few decades. They merely add a new perspective to the economic systems dimension of the development process.

Suggested Citation

  • Michael Keren, 2009. "China and India - a Note on the Influence of Hierarchy vs. Polyarchy on Economic Growth," European Journal of Comparative Economics, Cattaneo University (LIUC), vol. 6(2), pages 325-346, December.
  • Handle: RePEc:liu:liucej:v:6:y:2009:i:2:p:325-346
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: https://ejce.liuc.it/18242979200902/182429792009060208.pdf
    Download Restriction: no
    ---><---

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Pritchett, Lant, 2009. "Is India a Flailing State? Detours on the Four Lane Highway to Modernization," Working Paper Series rwp09-013, Harvard University, John F. Kennedy School of Government.
    2. Xu, Chenggang & Zhang, Xiaobo, 2009. "The evolution of Chinese entrepreneurial firms: Township-village enterprises revisited," IFPRI discussion papers 854, International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI).
    3. Baek , Jungho & Koo , Won W., 2009. "A Dynamic Approach to the FDI-Environment Nexus: The Case of China and India," East Asian Economic Review, Korea Institute for International Economic Policy, vol. 13(2), pages 87-106, December.
    4. Michael Keren, 1987. "Consumer prices in the GDR since 1950: The construction of price indices from purchasing power parities," Europe-Asia Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 39(2), pages 247-268.
    5. Weiye Li & Louis Putterman, 2008. "Reforming China's SOEs: An Overview," Comparative Economic Studies, Palgrave Macmillan;Association for Comparative Economic Studies, vol. 50(3), pages 353-380, September.
    6. Laura Alfaro & Anusha Chari, 2009. "India Transformed? Insights from the Firm Level 1988-2005," NBER Working Papers 15448, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    7. Joël Ruet & Xavier Richet, 2008. "The chinese and indian automobile industry in perspective : technology appropriation, catching-up and development," Post-Print hal-00583321, HAL.
    8. Andrea Boltho & Maria Weber, 2009. "Did China follow the East Asian development model?," European Journal of Comparative Economics, Cattaneo University (LIUC), vol. 6(2), pages 267-286, December.
    9. Angus Maddison, 2009. "Measuring The Economic Performance Of Transition Economies: Some Lessons From Chinese Experience," Review of Income and Wealth, International Association for Research in Income and Wealth, vol. 55(s1), pages 423-441, July.
    10. Yingyi Qian & Chenggang Xu, 1998. "Innovation and Bureaucracy Under Soft and Hard Budget Constraints," The Review of Economic Studies, Review of Economic Studies Ltd, vol. 65(1), pages 151-164.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Citations

    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.
    as


    Cited by:

    1. Enrico Marelli & Marcello Signorelli, 2011. "China and India: Openness, Trade and Effects on Economic Growth," European Journal of Comparative Economics, Cattaneo University (LIUC), vol. 8(1), pages 129-154, June.

    Most related items

    These are the items that most often cite the same works as this one and are cited by the same works as this one.
    1. Zheng, Liang & Zhao, Zhong, 2017. "What drives spatial clusters of entrepreneurship in China? Evidence from economic census data," China Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 46(C), pages 229-248.
    2. Agarwal, Natasha & Milner, Chris & Riaño, Alejandro, 2014. "Credit constraints and spillovers from foreign firms in China," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 48(C), pages 261-275.
    3. Singh, Nirvikar, 2018. "Financial Inclusion: Concepts, Issues and Policies for India," MPRA Paper 91047, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    4. Stefan Ambec & Michel Poitevin, 2000. "Organizational Design of R & D Activities," Econometric Society World Congress 2000 Contributed Papers 0190, Econometric Society.
    5. Anupama Roy, 2022. "Institutional ‘Presence’ and the Indian State: The Long Narrative," Studies in Indian Politics, , vol. 10(2), pages 185-200, December.
    6. Dong, Gang Nathan & Gu, Ming & He, Hua, 2020. "Invisible hand and helping hand: Private placement of public equity in China," Journal of Corporate Finance, Elsevier, vol. 61(C).
    7. Natasha Agarwal & Chris Milner & Alejandro Riaño, 2011. "Credit Constraints and FDI Spillovers in China," Discussion Papers 11/21, University of Nottingham, GEP.
    8. Nor Aznin Abu Bakar & Jimoh Olajide Raji & Rana Muhammad Adeel-Farooq, 2019. "Greenfield, Mergers & Acquisitions, Energy Consumption, and Environmental Performance in selected SAARC and ASEAN countries," International Journal of Energy Economics and Policy, Econjournals, vol. 9(2), pages 216-224.
    9. Kornai, János, 2000. "A költségvetési korlát megkeményítése a posztszocialista országokban [Hardening of the budget constraint in the post-socialist countries]," Közgazdasági Szemle (Economic Review - monthly of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences), Közgazdasági Szemle Alapítvány (Economic Review Foundation), vol. 0(1), pages 1-22.
    10. Shruti Rajagopalan & Alex Tabarrok, 2021. "Simple rules for the developing world," European Journal of Law and Economics, Springer, vol. 52(2), pages 341-362, December.
    11. Bobillo, Alfredo M. & López-Iturriaga, Felix & Tejerina-Gaite, Fernando, 2010. "Firm performance and international diversification: The internal and external competitive advantages," International Business Review, Elsevier, vol. 19(6), pages 607-618, December.
    12. Di Guo & Yan Guo & Kun Jiang, 2017. "Funding Forms, Market Conditions, And Dynamic Effects Of Government R&D Subsidies: Evidence From China," Economic Inquiry, Western Economic Association International, vol. 55(2), pages 825-842, April.
    13. Muhammad Shahbaz & Samia Nasreen & Talat Afza, 2014. "Environmental Consequences of Economic Growth and Foreign Direct Investment: Evidence from Panel Data Analysis," Bulletin of Energy Economics (BEE), The Economics and Social Development Organization (TESDO), vol. 2(2), pages 14-27, June.
    14. Chenggang Xu & Haizhou Huang, 1999. "Institutions, Innovations, and Growth," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 89(2), pages 438-443, May.
    15. Melike E Bildirici, 2021. "Terrorism, environmental pollution, foreign direct investment (FDI), energy consumption, and economic growth: Evidences from China, India, Israel, and Turkey," Energy & Environment, , vol. 32(1), pages 75-95, February.
    16. Tripura Sundari C. U. & Anindita Mitra, 2020. "Development and Degradation: The Nexus between GDP, FDI, and Pollution in India," Emerging Economy Studies, International Management Institute, vol. 6(1), pages 39-49, May.
    17. Grigoriadis, Theocharis N., 2011. "Aid effectiveness and the soft budget constraint: EU development aid to the former Soviet Union," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 112(3), pages 287-289, September.
    18. Alexei Deviatov & Barry W. Ickes, 2005. "Reputation and the Soft-Budget Constraint," Working Papers w0078, Center for Economic and Financial Research (CEFIR).
    19. Ashoka Mody & Anusha Nath & Michael Walton, 2010. "Sources of Corporate Profits in India - Business Dynamism or Advantages of Entrenchment?," CID Working Papers 212, Center for International Development at Harvard University.
    20. Ashok Chakravarti, 2012. "Institutions, Economic Performance and the Visible Hand," Books, Edward Elgar Publishing, number 14751.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Hierarchies vs. polyarchies; Indian development; China's development;
    All these keywords.

    JEL classification:

    • P51 - Political Economy and Comparative Economic Systems - - Comparative Economic Systems - - - Comparative Analysis of Economic Systems
    • O53 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Economywide Country Studies - - - Asia including Middle East
    • O57 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Economywide Country Studies - - - Comparative Studies of Countries
    • L19 - Industrial Organization - - Market Structure, Firm Strategy, and Market Performance - - - Other
    • D23 - Microeconomics - - Production and Organizations - - - Organizational Behavior; Transaction Costs; Property Rights

    Statistics

    Access and download statistics

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:liu:liucej:v:6:y:2009:i:2:p:325-346. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a bibliographic reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: Laura Ballestra (email available below). General contact details of provider: https://edirc.repec.org/data/liuccit.html .

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service. RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.