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Pénzügyi fegyelem és puha költségvetési korlát
[Financial discipline and soft budget constraint]

  • Kornai, János

    ()

A cikket a szerző a Palgrave enciklopédia felkérésére írta. Amennyiben a tartósan veszteséges vállalatokat, amelyeknek a piac belső szabályosságai szerint tönkre kellene menniük, rendszeresen kimentik, úgy a vállalatok költségvetési korlátja felpuhul. A puha költségvetési korlát jelensége mögött egy dinamikus elkötelezettségi és szavahihetőségi dilemma húzódik meg. Az állam kijelentéseiben elkötelezi magát, hogy a veszteséges vállalatot nem menti ki, de bizonyos körülmények között képtelen megtartani a szavát. A cikk hangsúlyozza, hogy noha a puha költségvetési korlát jelensége a szocialista és a posztszocialista gazdaságban mutatkozik meg a legélesebben, eléggé elterjedt az érett kapitalista piacgazdaság egyes szféráiban is. A puha költségvetési korlát gyengíti a piaci ösztönzést, kontraszelekcióhoz vezet, tompítja az ár- és költségérzékenységet, koordinációs zavarokat okoz, ártalmas monetáris s fiskális hatásokkal jár, és a kereslet elszaladását idézi elő. A tanulmány áttekintést ad a puha költségvetési korlát széles körű és sokoldalú elméleti és empirikus irodalmáról, elemzi a jelenséget kiváltó politikai, társadalmi és gazdasági okokat, majd levonja az elmélet által sugallt gazdaságpolitikai következtetéseket. A posztszocialista átmenet korszakában különleges jelentősége van a költségvetési korlát megkeményítésének; ez a reformfolyamat előrehaladásának egyik fokmérője.

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Article provided by Közgazdasági Szemle Alapítvány (Economic Review Foundation) in its journal Közgazdasági Szemle (Economic Review - monthly of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences).

Volume (Year): XLIV (1997)
Issue (Month): 11 ()
Pages: 940-953

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Handle: RePEc:ksa:szemle:464
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  1. Krueger, Anne O, 1974. "The Political Economy of the Rent-Seeking Society," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 64(3), pages 291-303, June.
  2. Qian, Yingyi, 1994. "A Theory of Shortage in Socialist Economies Based on the "Soft Budget Constraint."," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 84(1), pages 145-56, March.
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  12. Dewatripont, M & Maskin, E, 1995. "Credit and Efficiency in Centralized and Decentralized Economies," Review of Economic Studies, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 62(4), pages 541-55, October.
  13. Goldfeld, Stephen M. & Quandt, Richard E., 1993. "Uncertainty, bailouts, and the Kornai effect," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 41(2), pages 113-119.
  14. Bajt, A, 1991. " Irrelevance of the Soft Budget Constraint for the Shortage Phenomenon," Economic Change and Restructuring, Springer, vol. 24(1), pages 1-12.
  15. Mathias Dewatripont & Jean Tirole, 1996. "Biased principals as a discipline device," ULB Institutional Repository 2013/9611, ULB -- Universite Libre de Bruxelles.
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