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The role of business subsidies in job creation of start-ups, gazelles and incumbents

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  • Heli Koski

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  • Mika Pajarinen

Abstract

This study contributes to the empirical literature concerning the role of business subsidies in job creation. Our empirical analysis, using an extensive firm-level data, suggests that the impact of business subsidies on employment growth differs more between high-growth start-ups and other firms than between start-ups and incumbents. On average, all subsidies relate positively to the contemporary employment growth for both start-ups and incumbents. Furthermore, after subsidy reception, the employment of both start-ups and older incumbents receiving employment or other subsidies grows more than that of non-subsidized firms. However, we find that business subsidies do not provide a significant additional boost to either contemporary or after-subsidy growth for young high-growth companies. There are apparently some other factors that promote growth in young high-growth firms; these factors help foster strong growth in many cases with or without subsidies. Copyright Springer Science+Business Media, LLC. 2013

Suggested Citation

  • Heli Koski & Mika Pajarinen, 2013. "The role of business subsidies in job creation of start-ups, gazelles and incumbents," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 41(1), pages 195-214, June.
  • Handle: RePEc:kap:sbusec:v:41:y:2013:i:1:p:195-214
    DOI: 10.1007/s11187-012-9420-5
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    File URL: http://hdl.handle.net/10.1007/s11187-012-9420-5
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. Brown, Alessio J.G. & Merkl, Christian & Snower, Dennis J., 2011. "Comparing the effectiveness of employment subsidies," Labour Economics, Elsevier, vol. 18(2), pages 168-179, April.
    2. Koski, Heli & Pajarinen, Mika, 2011. "Do Business Subsidies Facilitate Employment Growth?," Discussion Papers 1235, The Research Institute of the Finnish Economy.
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    4. Magnus Henrekson & Dan Johansson, 2010. "Gazelles as job creators: a survey and interpretation of the evidence," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 35(2), pages 227-244, September.
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    7. C. Praag & Peter Versloot, 2007. "What is the value of entrepreneurship? A review of recent research," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 29(4), pages 351-382, December.
    8. Betcherman, Gordon & Daysal, N. Meltem & Pagés, Carmen, 2010. "Do employment subsidies work? Evidence from regionally targeted subsidies in Turkey," Labour Economics, Elsevier, vol. 17(4), pages 710-722, August.
    9. Erik Stam & Karl Wennberg, 2009. "The roles of R&D in new firm growth," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 33(1), pages 77-89, June.
    10. Taylor, Mark P, 2001. "Self-Employment and Windfall Gains in Britain: Evidence from Panel Data," Economica, London School of Economics and Political Science, vol. 68(272), pages 539-565, November.
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    12. Thorsten Beck & Asli Demirgüç-Kunt & Vojislav Maksimovic, 2005. "Financial and Legal Constraints to Growth: Does Firm Size Matter?," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 60(1), pages 137-177, February.
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    Citations

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    Cited by:

    1. Gustavsson Tingvall, Patrik & Videnord, Josefin, 2017. "Regional Effects of Publicly Sponsored R&D Grants on SME Performance," Ratio Working Papers 289, The Ratio Institute.
    2. Stjepan Srhoj & Bruno Škrinjarić & Sonja Radas, 2018. "Bidding against the odds? The impact evaluation of grants for young micro and small firms during the recession," Working Papers 374, Leibniz Institut für Ost- und Südosteuropaforschung (Institute for East and Southeast European Studies).
    3. Heli Koski & Mika Pajarinen, 2015. "Subsidies, the Shadow of Death and Labor Productivity," Journal of Industry, Competition and Trade, Springer, vol. 15(2), pages 189-204, June.
    4. Anders Gustafsson & Andreas Stephan & Alice Hallman & Nils Karlsson, 2016. "The “sugar rush” from innovation subsidies: a robust political economy perspective," Empirica, Springer;Austrian Institute for Economic Research;Austrian Economic Association, vol. 43(4), pages 729-756, November.
    5. Stefaan Decramer & Stijn Vanormelingen, 2016. "The effectiveness of investment subsidies: evidence from a regression discontinuity design," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 47(4), pages 1007-1032, December.
    6. Demir, Robert & Wennberg, Karl & McKelvie, Alexander, 2016. "The Strategic Management of High-Growth Firms: A Review and Theoretical Conceptualization," Ratio Working Papers 273, The Ratio Institute.
    7. Söderblom, Anna & Samuelsson, Mikael & Wiklund, Johan & Sandberg, Rickard, 2015. "Inside the black box of outcome additionality: Effects of early-stage government subsidies on resource accumulation and new venture performance," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 44(8), pages 1501-1512.
    8. repec:krk:eberjl:v:1:y:2013:i:1:p:41-54 is not listed on IDEAS
    9. Christian Cancino & Claudio Bonilla & Marcos Vergara, 2016. "The impact of government support programs for the development of businesses in Chile," Serie Working Papers 28, Universidad del Desarrollo, School of Business and Economics.
    10. Maria Figueroa-Armijos & Thomas G. Johnson, 2016. "Entrepreneurship policy and economic growth: Solution or delusion? Evidence from a state initiative," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 47(4), pages 1033-1047, December.
    11. repec:eee:respol:v:48:y:2019:i:1:p:371-384 is not listed on IDEAS
    12. OKAMURO, Hiroyuki & KATO, Masatoshi, 2015. "Determinants of Quantitative and Qualitative Employment Growth: A Comparison between R&D-oriented and Other Start-ups in Japan," CCES Discussion Paper Series 62, Center for Research on Contemporary Economic Systems, Graduate School of Economics, Hitotsubashi University.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Public subsidies; Enterprise policy; Industrial policy; Technology policy; Employment; Growth; J23; L10; L53; O25; O33; L26;

    JEL classification:

    • J23 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demand and Supply of Labor - - - Labor Demand
    • L10 - Industrial Organization - - Market Structure, Firm Strategy, and Market Performance - - - General
    • L53 - Industrial Organization - - Regulation and Industrial Policy - - - Enterprise Policy
    • O25 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Development Planning and Policy - - - Industrial Policy
    • O33 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Innovation; Research and Development; Technological Change; Intellectual Property Rights - - - Technological Change: Choices and Consequences; Diffusion Processes
    • L26 - Industrial Organization - - Firm Objectives, Organization, and Behavior - - - Entrepreneurship

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