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The direct employment effects of new businesses in Germany revisited: an empirical investigation for 1976–2004

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  • Yvonne Schindele
  • Antje Weyh

Abstract

Based on an improved and extended database, the Establishment History Panel, we extend the analysis of Fritsch & Weyh (2006) by investigating the development of employment in German start-up cohorts for the period 1976 to 2004. We conïfirm the typical pattern of an initial increasing and then soon decreasing number of employees in start-up cohorts. Furthermore, we provide some of the first evidence for the "liability of aging" phenomena in Germany. Older firms face a relatively high risk of failure. Although only the largest 25% of the surviving entries grow in terms of employment, after 25 years the number of employees in these relatively large businesses strongly declines.
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  • Yvonne Schindele & Antje Weyh, 2011. "The direct employment effects of new businesses in Germany revisited: an empirical investigation for 1976–2004," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 36(3), pages 353-363, April.
  • Handle: RePEc:kap:sbusec:v:36:y:2011:i:3:p:353-363
    DOI: 10.1007/s11187-009-9218-2
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    1. Robert Cressy, 2006. "Why do Most Firms Die Young?," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 26(2), pages 103-116, March.
    2. Michael Fritsch, 2004. "Entrepreneurship, entry and performance of new business compared in two growth regimes: East and West Germany," Journal of Evolutionary Economics, Springer, vol. 14(5), pages 525-542, December.
    3. P. A. Geroski & José Mata & Pedro Portugal, 2010. "Founding conditions and the survival of new firms," Strategic Management Journal, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 31(5), pages 510-529, May.
    4. Michael Fritsch & Udo Brixy & Oliver Falck, 2006. "The Effect of Industry, Region, and Time on New Business Survival – A Multi-Dimensional Analysis," Review of Industrial Organization, Springer;The Industrial Organization Society, vol. 28(3), pages 285-306, May.
    5. Michael Fritsch & Juergen Schmude (ed.), 2006. "Entrepreneurship in the Region," International Studies in Entrepreneurship, Springer, number 978-0-387-28376-0, April.
    6. Wagner, Joachim, 1994. "The Post-entry Performance of New Small Firms in German Manufacturing Industries," Journal of Industrial Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 42(2), pages 141-154, June.
    7. Fritsch, Michael & Weyh, Antje, 2004. "How large are the direct employment effects of new businesses? An empirical investigation," Freiberg Working Papers 2004/05, TU Bergakademie Freiberg, Faculty of Economics and Business Administration.
    8. Agarwal, Rajshree & Gort, Michael, 1996. "The Evolution of Markets and Entry, Exit and Survival of Firms," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 78(3), pages 489-498, August.
    9. Michael Fritsch & Antje Weyh, 2006. "How Large are the Direct Employment Effects of New Businesses? An Empirical Investigation for West Germany," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 27(2), pages 245-260, October.
    10. Antje Weyh, 2006. "What Characterizes Successful Start-Up Cohorts?," International Studies in Entrepreneurship, in: Michael Fritsch & Juergen Schmude (ed.), Entrepreneurship in the Region, chapter 4, pages 61-74, Springer.
    11. Dirk Engel & Georg Metzger, 2006. "Direct Employment Effects of New Firms," International Studies in Entrepreneurship, in: Michael Fritsch & Juergen Schmude (ed.), Entrepreneurship in the Region, chapter 5, pages 75-93, Springer.
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    Cited by:

    1. Michael Fritsch & Alexandra Schroeter, 2011. "Does Quality Make a Difference?: Employment Effects of High- and Low-Quality Start-Ups," Discussion Papers of DIW Berlin 1128, DIW Berlin, German Institute for Economic Research.
    2. Michael Fritsch & Martin Obschonka & Michael Wyrwich, 2018. "Historical Roots of Entrepreneurial Culture and Innovation Activity?An Analysis for German Regions," Papers in Evolutionary Economic Geography (PEEG) 1824, Utrecht University, Department of Human Geography and Spatial Planning, Group Economic Geography, revised Jun 2018.
    3. Javier Changoluisa & Michael Fritsch, 2020. "New Business Formation and Incumbents’ Perception of Competitive Pressure," Review of Industrial Organization, Springer;The Industrial Organization Society, vol. 56(1), pages 165-197, February.
    4. Christopher Buschow, 2020. "Why Do Digital Native News Media Fail? An Investigation of Failure in the Early Start-Up Phase," Media and Communication, Cogitatio Press, vol. 8(2), pages 51-61.
    5. Michael Fritsch & Sandra Kublina, 2019. "Persistence and change of regional new business formation in the national league table," Journal of Evolutionary Economics, Springer, vol. 29(3), pages 891-917, July.
    6. Fackler, Daniel, 2014. "Establishment survival in East and West Germany: A comparative analysis," Discussion Papers 90, Friedrich-Alexander University Erlangen-Nuremberg, Chair of Labour and Regional Economics.
    7. Michael Fritsch & Alexandra Schroeter, 2011. "Why does the effect of new business formation differ across regions?," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 36(4), pages 383-400, May.
    8. Michael Anyadike-Danes & Mark Hart, 2018. "All grown up? The fate after 15 years of a quarter of a million UK firms born in 1998," Journal of Evolutionary Economics, Springer, vol. 28(1), pages 45-76, January.
    9. Fritsch, Michael & Changoluisa, Javier, 2017. "New business formation and the productivity of manufacturing incumbents: Effects and mechanisms," Journal of Business Venturing, Elsevier, vol. 32(3), pages 237-259.
    10. Daniel Fackler & Claus Schnabel & Joachim Wagner, 2013. "Establishment exits in Germany: the role of size and age," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 41(3), pages 683-700, October.
    11. Fritsch, Michael, 2013. "New Business Formation and Regional Development: A Survey and Assessment of the Evidence," Foundations and Trends(R) in Entrepreneurship, now publishers, vol. 9(3), pages 249-364, February.
    12. Alina Sorgner & Michael Fritsch & Alexander Kritikos, 2017. "Do entrepreneurs really earn less?," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 49(2), pages 251-272, August.
    13. Michael Fritsch, 2012. "Methods of analyzing the relationship between new business formation and regional development," Jena Economic Research Papers 2012-064, Friedrich-Schiller-University Jena.
    14. Michael Fritsch & Florian Noseleit, 2013. "Indirect employment effects of new business formation across regions: The role of local market conditions," Papers in Regional Science, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 92(2), pages 361-382, June.
    15. Schneck, Stefan & May-Strobl, Eva, 2014. "The economic contribution of start-up firms in Germany," Working Papers 02/14, Institut für Mittelstandsforschung (IfM) Bonn.
    16. Michael Fritsch & Florian Noseleit & Yvonne Schindele, 2014. "Surviving Against the Tide: Are New Businesses in Innovative Industries Less Affected by General Economic Trends?," Jena Economic Research Papers 2014-017, Friedrich-Schiller-University Jena.
    17. Steffen Mueller & Jens Stegmaier, 2015. "Economic failure and the role of plant age and size," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 44(3), pages 621-638, March.
    18. repec:elg:eechap:14395_15 is not listed on IDEAS
    19. Michaela Fuchs & Antje Weyh, 2014. "The pre-exit performance of German plants - How long is the 'shadow of death'?," ERSA conference papers ersa14p1644, European Regional Science Association.
    20. Schröpf, Benedikt, 2021. "The dynamics of wage dispersion between firms: The role of firm entry and exit," Discussion Papers 120, Friedrich-Alexander University Erlangen-Nuremberg, Chair of Labour and Regional Economics.
    21. Yvonne Schindele & Michael Fritsch & Florian Noseleit, 2011. "Micro-level Evidence on the Survival of German Manufacturing Industries - A Multidimensional Analysis (refereed paper)," ERSA conference papers ersa10p549, European Regional Science Association.
    22. Michael Fritsch & Florian Noseleit, 2013. "Start-ups, long- and short-term survivors, and their contribution to employment growth," Journal of Evolutionary Economics, Springer, vol. 23(4), pages 719-733, September.

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    More about this item

    Keywords

    Employment change; Liability of aging; New firms; Start-up cohorts; D21; L10; L26; L29; M13;
    All these keywords.

    JEL classification:

    • D21 - Microeconomics - - Production and Organizations - - - Firm Behavior: Theory
    • L10 - Industrial Organization - - Market Structure, Firm Strategy, and Market Performance - - - General
    • L26 - Industrial Organization - - Firm Objectives, Organization, and Behavior - - - Entrepreneurship
    • L29 - Industrial Organization - - Firm Objectives, Organization, and Behavior - - - Other
    • M13 - Business Administration and Business Economics; Marketing; Accounting; Personnel Economics - - Business Administration - - - New Firms; Startups

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