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The direct employment effects of new businesses in Germany revisited: an empirical investigation for 1976–2004

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  • Yvonne Schindele

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  • Antje Weyh

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Abstract

Based on an improved and extended database, the Establishment History Panel, we extend the analysis of Fritsch & Weyh (2006) by investigating the development of employment in German start-up cohorts for the period 1976 to 2004. We conïfirm the typical pattern of an initial increasing and then soon decreasing number of employees in start-up cohorts. Furthermore, we provide some of the first evidence for the "liability of aging" phenomena in Germany. Older firms face a relatively high risk of failure. Although only the largest 25% of the surviving entries grow in terms of employment, after 25 years the number of employees in these relatively large businesses strongly declines.
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Suggested Citation

  • Yvonne Schindele & Antje Weyh, 2011. "The direct employment effects of new businesses in Germany revisited: an empirical investigation for 1976–2004," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 36(3), pages 353-363, April.
  • Handle: RePEc:kap:sbusec:v:36:y:2011:i:3:p:353-363
    DOI: 10.1007/s11187-009-9218-2
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    File URL: http://hdl.handle.net/10.1007/s11187-009-9218-2
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. Robert Cressy, 2006. "Why do Most Firms Die Young?," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 26(2), pages 103-116, March.
    2. Michael Fritsch, 2004. "Entrepreneurship, entry and performance of new business compared in two growth regimes: East and West Germany," Journal of Evolutionary Economics, Springer, vol. 14(5), pages 525-542, December.
    3. P.A. Geroski & José Mata & Pedro Portugal, 2003. "Founding Conditions and the Survival of New Firms," Working Papers w200301, Banco de Portugal, Economics and Research Department.
    4. Michael Fritsch & Udo Brixy & Oliver Falck, 2006. "The Effect of Industry, Region, and Time on New Business Survival – A Multi-Dimensional Analysis," Review of Industrial Organization, Springer;The Industrial Organization Society, vol. 28(3), pages 285-306, May.
    5. Fritsch, Michael & Weyh, Antje, 2004. "How large are the direct employment effects of new businesses? An empirical investigation," Freiberg Working Papers 2004,05, TU Bergakademie Freiberg, Faculty of Economics and Business Administration.
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    Citations

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    Cited by:

    1. Michael Fritsch & Alexandra Schroeter, 2011. "Does Quality make a Difference? Employment Effects of High- and Low-Quality Start-ups," ERSA conference papers ersa10p1400, European Regional Science Association.
    2. Javier Changoluisa & Michael Fritsch, 2016. "New Business Formation and Incumbents' Perception of Competitive Pressure," Jena Economic Research Papers 2016-019, Friedrich-Schiller-University Jena.
    3. Michael Fritsch & Sandra Kublina, 2016. "Persistence and Change of Regional New Business Formation in the National League Table," Jena Economic Research Papers 2016-001, Friedrich-Schiller-University Jena.
    4. Fackler, Daniel, 2014. "Establishment survival in East and West Germany: A comparative analysis," Discussion Papers 90, Friedrich-Alexander University Erlangen-Nuremberg, Chair of Labour and Regional Economics.
    5. Michael Fritsch & Alexandra Schroeter, 2011. "Why does the effect of new business formation differ across regions?," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 36(4), pages 383-400, May.
    6. Fritsch, Michael & Changoluisa, Javier, 2017. "New business formation and the productivity of manufacturing incumbents: Effects and mechanisms," Journal of Business Venturing, Elsevier, vol. 32(3), pages 237-259.
    7. Daniel Fackler & Claus Schnabel & Joachim Wagner, 2013. "Establishment exits in Germany: the role of size and age," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 41(3), pages 683-700, October.
    8. Alina Sorgner & Michael Fritsch & Alexander Kritikos, 2017. "Do entrepreneurs really earn less?," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 49(2), pages 251-272, August.
    9. Michael Fritsch, 2012. "Methods of analyzing the relationship between new business formation and regional development," Jena Economic Research Papers 2012-064, Friedrich-Schiller-University Jena.
    10. Michael Fritsch & Florian Noseleit, 2013. "Indirect employment effects of new business formation across regions: The role of local market conditions," Papers in Regional Science, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 92(2), pages 361-382, June.
    11. Schneck, Stefan & May-Strobl, Eva, 2014. "The economic contribution of start-up firms in Germany," Working Papers 02/14, Institut für Mittelstandsforschung (IfM) Bonn.
    12. Michael Fritsch & Florian Noseleit & Yvonne Schindele, 2014. "Surviving Against the Tide: Are New Businesses in Innovative Industries Less Affected by General Economic Trends?," Jena Economic Research Papers 2014-017, Friedrich-Schiller-University Jena.
    13. Steffen Mueller & Jens Stegmaier, 2015. "Economic failure and the role of plant age and size," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 44(3), pages 621-638, March.
    14. repec:elg:eechap:14395_15 is not listed on IDEAS
    15. Michaela Fuchs & Antje Weyh, 2014. "The pre-exit performance of German plants - How long is the 'shadow of death'?," ERSA conference papers ersa14p1644, European Regional Science Association.
    16. Yvonne Schindele & Michael Fritsch & Florian Noseleit, 2011. "Micro-level Evidence on the Survival of German Manufacturing Industries - A Multidimensional Analysis (refereed paper)," ERSA conference papers ersa10p549, European Regional Science Association.
    17. Michael Fritsch & Florian Noseleit, 2013. "Start-ups, long- and short-term survivors, and their contribution to employment growth," Journal of Evolutionary Economics, Springer, vol. 23(4), pages 719-733, September.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Employment change; Liability of aging; New firms; Start-up cohorts; D21; L10; L26; L29; M13;

    JEL classification:

    • D21 - Microeconomics - - Production and Organizations - - - Firm Behavior: Theory
    • L10 - Industrial Organization - - Market Structure, Firm Strategy, and Market Performance - - - General
    • L26 - Industrial Organization - - Firm Objectives, Organization, and Behavior - - - Entrepreneurship
    • L29 - Industrial Organization - - Firm Objectives, Organization, and Behavior - - - Other
    • M13 - Business Administration and Business Economics; Marketing; Accounting; Personnel Economics - - Business Administration - - - New Firms; Startups

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