IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/a/kap/poprpr/v34y2015i1p1-18.html
   My bibliography  Save this article

Are Differences in Disability-Free Life Expectancy by Gender, Race, and Education Widening at Older Ages?

Author

Listed:
  • Aïda Solé-Auró

    ()

  • Hiram Beltrán-Sánchez
  • Eileen Crimmins

Abstract

To examine change from 1991 to 2001 in disability-free life expectancy in the age range 60–90 by gender, race, and education in the United States. Mortality is estimated over two 10-year follow-up periods for persons in the National Health Interview Surveys of 1986/1987 and 1996/1997. Vital status is ascertained through the National Death Index. Disability prevalence is estimated from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys of 1988–1994 and 1999–2002. Disability is defined as ability to perform four activities of daily living without difficulty. Disability-free life expectancy increased only among white men. Disabled life expectancy increased for all groups—black and white men and women. Racial differences in disability-free life expectancy widened among men; gender differences were reduced among whites. Expansion of socioeconomic differentials in disability-free life at older ages occurred among white men and women and black women. The 1990s was a period where the increased years of life between ages 60 and 90 were concentrated in disabled years for most population groups. Copyright Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2015

Suggested Citation

  • Aïda Solé-Auró & Hiram Beltrán-Sánchez & Eileen Crimmins, 2015. "Are Differences in Disability-Free Life Expectancy by Gender, Race, and Education Widening at Older Ages?," Population Research and Policy Review, Springer;Southern Demographic Association (SDA), vol. 34(1), pages 1-18, February.
  • Handle: RePEc:kap:poprpr:v:34:y:2015:i:1:p:1-18
    DOI: 10.1007/s11113-014-9337-6
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: http://hdl.handle.net/10.1007/s11113-014-9337-6
    Download Restriction: Access to full text is restricted to subscribers.
    ---><---

    As the access to this document is restricted, you may want to search for a different version of it.

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Michael Geruso, 2012. "Black-White Disparities in Life Expectancy: How Much Can the Standard SES Variables Explain?," Demography, Springer;Population Association of America (PAA), vol. 49(2), pages 553-574, May.
    2. Vicki Freedman & Brenda Spillman & Patti Andreski & Jennifer Cornman & Eileen Crimmins & Ellen Kramarow & James Lubitz & Linda Martin & Sharon Merkin & Robert Schoeni & Teresa Seeman & Timothy Waidman, 2013. "Trends in Late-Life Activity Limitations in the United States: An Update From Five National Surveys," Demography, Springer;Population Association of America (PAA), vol. 50(2), pages 661-671, April.
    3. Fred C. Pampel, 2002. "Cigarette Use and the Narrowing Sex Differential in Mortality," Population and Development Review, The Population Council, Inc., vol. 28(1), pages 77-104, March.
    4. Haas, Steven & Rohlfsen, Leah, 2010. "Life course determinants of racial and ethnic disparities in functional health trajectories," Social Science & Medicine, Elsevier, vol. 70(2), pages 240-250, January.
    5. David M. Cutler & Fabian Lange & Ellen Meara & Seth Richards & Christopher J. Ruhm, 2010. "Explaining the Rise in Educational Gradients in Mortality," NBER Working Papers 15678, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    6. Kenneth G. Manton & XiLiang Gu & Gene R. Lowrimore, 2008. "Cohort Changes in Active Life Expectancy in the U.S. Elderly Population: Experience From the 1982–2004 National Long-Term Care Survey," Journals of Gerontology: Series B, Gerontological Society of America, vol. 63(5), pages 269-281.
    7. Eileen Crimmins & Mark Hayward & Yasuhiko Saito, 1994. "Changing mortality and morbidity rates and the health status and life expectancy of the older population," Demography, Springer;Population Association of America (PAA), vol. 31(1), pages 159-175, February.
    8. Mark Hayward & Melonie Heron, 1999. "Racial inequality in active life among adult americans," Demography, Springer;Population Association of America (PAA), vol. 36(1), pages 77-91, February.
    9. Crimmins, Eileen M. & Saito, Yasuhiko, 2001. "Trends in healthy life expectancy in the United States, 1970-1990: gender, racial, and educational differences," Social Science & Medicine, Elsevier, vol. 52(11), pages 1629-1641, June.
    10. Scott E. Harrington, 2010. "U.S. Health‐care Reform: The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act," Journal of Risk & Insurance, The American Risk and Insurance Association, vol. 77(3), pages 703-708, September.
    11. Liming Cai & James Lubitz, 2007. "Was there compression of disability for older Americans from 1992 to 2003?," Demography, Springer;Population Association of America (PAA), vol. 44(3), pages 479-495, August.
    12. Robert F. Schoeni & Vicki A. Freedman & Linda G. Martin, 2009. "Socioeconomic and Demographic Disparties in Trends in Old-Age Disability," NBER Chapters, in: Health at Older Ages: The Causes and Consequences of Declining Disability among the Elderly, pages 75-102, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Citations

    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.
    as


    Cited by:

    1. Aïda Solé-Auró & Manuela Alcañiz, 2015. "Is the educational health gap increasing for women? Results from Catalonia(Spain)," Working Papers 2015-06, Universitat de Barcelona, UB Riskcenter.
    2. Ang, Shannon, 2019. "Intersectional cohort change: Disparities in mobility limitations among older Singaporeans," Social Science & Medicine, Elsevier, vol. 228(C), pages 223-231.

    Most related items

    These are the items that most often cite the same works as this one and are cited by the same works as this one.
    1. Michael Chernew & David M. Cutler & Kaushik Ghosh & Mary Beth Landrum, 2016. "Understanding the Improvement in Disability-Free Life Expectancy in the U.S. Elderly Population," NBER Chapters, in: Insights in the Economics of Aging, pages 161-201, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    2. Jennifer Montez & Mark Hayward, 2014. "Cumulative Childhood Adversity, Educational Attainment, and Active Life Expectancy Among U.S. Adults," Demography, Springer;Population Association of America (PAA), vol. 51(2), pages 413-435, April.
    3. Zajacova, Anna & Montez, Jennifer Karas, 2018. "Explaining the increasing disability prevalence among mid-life US adults, 2002 to 2016," Social Science & Medicine, Elsevier, vol. 211(C), pages 1-8.
    4. Mark Hayward & Robert Hummer & Chi-Tsun Chiu & César González-González & Rebeca Wong, 2014. "Does the Hispanic Paradox in U.S. Adult Mortality Extend to Disability?," Population Research and Policy Review, Springer;Southern Demographic Association (SDA), vol. 33(1), pages 81-96, February.
    5. Benedetta Pongiglione & Bianca L De Stavola & George B Ploubidis, 2015. "A Systematic Literature Review of Studies Analyzing Inequalities in Health Expectancy among the Older Population," PLOS ONE, Public Library of Science, vol. 10(6), pages 1-21, June.
    6. Melonie P. Heron & Leo S. Morales, 2002. "Latino Health, Nativity and Socioeconomic Status," Working Papers 02-06, RAND Corporation.
    7. Christian Dudel & Mikko Myrskylä, 2016. "Recent trends in US working life expectancy at age 50 by gender, education, and race/ethnicity and the impact of the Great Recession," MPIDR Working Papers WP-2016-006, Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research, Rostock, Germany.
    8. Qiang Li & Zhen Zhang, 2018. "Age trajectories of independence in daily living among the oldest old in China," European Journal of Ageing, Springer, vol. 15(4), pages 393-406, December.
    9. Bloom, David E. & Luca, Dara Lee, 2016. "The Global Demography of Aging: Facts, Explanations, Future," IZA Discussion Papers 10163, Institute of Labor Economics (IZA).
    10. Jeffrey T. Howard & P. Johnelle Sparks, 2016. "The Effects of Allostatic Load on Racial/Ethnic Mortality Differences in the United States," Population Research and Policy Review, Springer;Southern Demographic Association (SDA), vol. 35(4), pages 421-443, August.
    11. Jennifer Montez & Erika Sabbath & M. Glymour & Lisa Berkman, 2014. "Trends in Work–Family Context Among U.S. Women by Education Level, 1976 to 2011," Population Research and Policy Review, Springer;Southern Demographic Association (SDA), vol. 33(5), pages 629-648, October.
    12. Bloom, D.E. & Luca, D.L., 2016. "The Global Demography of Aging," Handbook of the Economics of Population Aging, in: Piggott, John & Woodland, Alan (ed.), Handbook of the Economics of Population Aging, edition 1, volume 1, chapter 0, pages 3-56, Elsevier.
    13. Jeremy Pais, 2014. "Cumulative Structural Disadvantage and Racial Health Disparities: The Pathways of Childhood Socioeconomic Influence," Demography, Springer;Population Association of America (PAA), vol. 51(5), pages 1729-1753, October.
    14. Rachel Margolis & Laura Wright, 2017. "Healthy Grandparenthood: How Long Is It, and How Has It Changed?," Demography, Springer;Population Association of America (PAA), vol. 54(6), pages 2073-2099, December.
    15. Diane Coffey & Ashwini Deshpande & Jeffrey Hammer & Dean Spears, 2019. "Local Social Inequality, Economic Inequality, and Disparities in Child Height in India," Demography, Springer;Population Association of America (PAA), vol. 56(4), pages 1427-1452, August.
    16. Simon Chang, 2021. "The sex ratio and global sodomy law reform in the post-WWII era," Journal of Population Economics, Springer;European Society for Population Economics, vol. 34(2), pages 401-430, April.
    17. Michael Geruso & Dean Spears, 2018. "Neighborhood Sanitation and Infant Mortality," American Economic Journal: Applied Economics, American Economic Association, vol. 10(2), pages 125-162, April.
    18. Mamelund, Svenn-Erik, 2003. "Effects of the Spanish Influenza Pandemic of 1918-19 on Later Life Mortality of Norwegian Cohorts Born About 1900," Memorandum 29/2003, Oslo University, Department of Economics.
    19. Nicole L. Van Der Gaag & Govert Bijwaard & Joop de Beer & Luc Bonneux, 2015. "A multistate model to project elderly disability in case of limited data," Demographic Research, Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research, Rostock, Germany, vol. 32(3), pages 75-106.
    20. Newton, Nicky J. & Ryan, Lindsay H. & King, Rachel T. & Smith, Jacqui, 2014. "Cohort differences in the marriage–health relationship for midlife women," Social Science & Medicine, Elsevier, vol. 116(C), pages 64-72.

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:kap:poprpr:v:34:y:2015:i:1:p:1-18. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Sonal Shukla) or (Springer Nature Abstracting and Indexing). General contact details of provider: http://www.springer.com .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.