The Effect of Ethical Fund Portfolio Inclusion on Executive Compensation
This paper divides firms in the Standard and Poorâ€™s 500 (S&P 500) into two groups based on inclusion in or exclusion from the Domini Social Index (DSI). Inclusion in the DSI is interpreted as a positive indicator of ethical status. Using data for the 1992â€“2003 period, I provide evidence that chief executive officer (CEO) compensation, other executive compensation, and director compensation tend to be lower in DSI firms than in other firms in the S&P 500. This applies to the unconditional group averages (and medians) and is particularly striking given that DSI firms as a group had better financial performance than the other firms. This finding is also true in a regression framework that controls for other influences on compensation, including firm size and financial performance. In a regression context, the estimated discount for CEOs of DSI firms is approximately 12% for both current compensation (salary and bonuses) and total compensation (including the value of options). These results are consistent with the expectation that some senior executives require a â€œcompensating differentialâ€\x9D to accept positions in firms with less attractive ethical status. It is also consistent with the expectation that some firms with positive ethical status might use more restraint in setting executive compensation. Copyright Springer Science+Business Media, Inc. 2006
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- Bauer, Bob & Koedijk, Kees & Otten, Roger, 2002. "International Evidence on Ethical Mutual Fund Performance and Investment Style," CEPR Discussion Papers 3452, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
- Palia, Darius, 2001. "The Endogeneity of Managerial Compensation in Firm Valuation: A Solution," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 14(3), pages 735-64.
- Murphy, Kevin J., 1999. "Executive compensation," Handbook of Labor Economics, in: O. Ashenfelter & D. Card (ed.), Handbook of Labor Economics, edition 1, volume 3, chapter 38, pages 2485-2563 Elsevier.
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