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Lending Through the Cycle: The Federal Housing Administration’s Evolving Risk in the Primary Market

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  • Brent Smith

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Abstract

Utilizing a sample of loan originations, the distribution of the market served by the Federal Housing Administration (FHA) and conventional lenders is modeled through this current cycle. Results indicate that FHA market shares in the early years of the observation period (2003 through 2006) are concentrated in zip codes with higher economic risk characteristics and obtained by high risk borrowers. FHA is forced to accept lower quality loans as competition from more nimble private lenders with lower access hurdles and more rapid processing expanded into markets traditionally served by FHA. Unexpectedly, the analysis also reveals that the distribution of FHA loans fails to exhibit a targeted racial bias toward neighborhoods with African American Concentration. Copyright International Atlantic Economic Society 2012

Suggested Citation

  • Brent Smith, 2012. "Lending Through the Cycle: The Federal Housing Administration’s Evolving Risk in the Primary Market," Atlantic Economic Journal, Springer;International Atlantic Economic Society, vol. 40(3), pages 253-271, September.
  • Handle: RePEc:kap:atlecj:v:40:y:2012:i:3:p:253-271
    DOI: 10.1007/s11293-012-9327-1
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. John Karikari & Ioan Voicu & Irene Fang, 2011. "FHA vs. Subprime Mortgage Originations: Is FHA the Answer to Subprime Lending?," The Journal of Real Estate Finance and Economics, Springer, vol. 43(4), pages 441-458, November.
    2. Paul S. Calem & Kevin Gillen & Susan Wachter, 2004. "The Neighborhood Distribution of Subprime Mortgage Lending," The Journal of Real Estate Finance and Economics, Springer, vol. 29(4), pages 393-410, December.
    3. Peter Linneman & Susan Wachter, 1989. "The Impacts of Borrowing Constraints on Homeownership," Real Estate Economics, American Real Estate and Urban Economics Association, vol. 17(4), pages 389-402.
    4. Anthony Pennington-Cross & Joseph Nichols, 2000. "Credit History and the FHA-Conventional Choice," Real Estate Economics, American Real Estate and Urban Economics Association, vol. 28(2), pages 307-336.
    5. Wayne R. Archer & Brent C. Smith, 2010. "Residential mortgage default: the roles of house price volatility, euphoria and the borrower's put option," Working Paper 10-02, Federal Reserve Bank of Richmond.
    6. Ambrose, Brent W. & Pennington-Cross, Anthony, 2000. "Local economic risk factors and the primary and secondary mortgage markets," Regional Science and Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 30(6), pages 683-701, December.
    7. Susanne Cannon & Norman G. Miller & Gurupdesh S. Pandher, 2006. "Risk and Return in the U.S. Housing Market: A Cross-Sectional Asset-Pricing Approach," Real Estate Economics, American Real Estate and Urban Economics Association, vol. 34(4), pages 519-552, December.
    8. Hendershott, Patric H. & LaFayette, William C. & Haurin, Donald R., 1997. "Debt Usage and Mortgage Choice: The FHA-Conventional Decision," Journal of Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 41(2), pages 202-217, March.
    9. Karen M. Pence, 2006. "Foreclosing on Opportunity: State Laws and Mortgage Credit," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 88(1), pages 177-182, February.
    10. Goodman, John Jr. & Nichols, Joseph B., 1997. "Does FHA Increase Home Ownership or Just Accelerate It?," Journal of Housing Economics, Elsevier, vol. 6(2), pages 184-202, June.
    11. Diego Aragon & Andrew Caplin & Sumit Chopra & John V. Leahy & Yann LeCun & Marco Scoffier & Joseph Tracy, 2010. "Reassessing FHA Risk," NBER Working Papers 15802, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    12. Joseph Nichols & Anthony Pennington-Cross & Anthony Yezer, 2004. "Borrower Self-Selection, Underwriting Costs, and Subprime Mortgage Credit Supply," The Journal of Real Estate Finance and Economics, Springer, vol. 30(2), pages 197-219, November.
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    Cited by:

    1. Qianqian Cao & Shimeng Liu, 2015. "The Impact of State Foreclosure and Bankruptcy Laws on Higher-Risk Lending: Evidence from FHA and Subprime Mortgage Originations," Working Paper 9411, USC Lusk Center for Real Estate.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Residential mortgage markets; Public policy; Housing; Federal Housing Administration; G21; G28; K11; R20;

    JEL classification:

    • G21 - Financial Economics - - Financial Institutions and Services - - - Banks; Other Depository Institutions; Micro Finance Institutions; Mortgages
    • G28 - Financial Economics - - Financial Institutions and Services - - - Government Policy and Regulation
    • K11 - Law and Economics - - Basic Areas of Law - - - Property Law
    • R20 - Urban, Rural, Regional, Real Estate, and Transportation Economics - - Household Analysis - - - General

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