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Shifts of Reference Points for Framing of Strategic Decisions and Changing Risk-Return Associations


  • Johannes M. Lehner

    () (Institut für Unternehmensführung, Forschungsschwerpunkt Organisation, University of Linz, Altenbergerstrasse 69, A-4040 Linz, Austria)


Previous results on nonlinear risk-return associations, predicted by prospect theory, are replicated with mean quadratic differences instead of variance as a measure of risk. In contrast to assumptions of these studies, results with a sample from the COMPUSTAT-database provide evidence that at least a minority of firms shift to individual reference levels, which are represented here through levels of minimal risk. Further, changes of environmental conditions as an alternative explanation for switching risk-return relationships are tested against prospect theory predictions. It is shown that risk-return relationships remain stable as long as the relative position to the individual reference level is stable. This explains switching risk-return relationships better than changing environmental conditions.

Suggested Citation

  • Johannes M. Lehner, 2000. "Shifts of Reference Points for Framing of Strategic Decisions and Changing Risk-Return Associations," Management Science, INFORMS, vol. 46(1), pages 63-76, January.
  • Handle: RePEc:inm:ormnsc:v:46:y:2000:i:1:p:63-76

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    References listed on IDEAS

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    Cited by:

    1. Núñez-Nickel, Manuel & Cano Rodríguez, Manuel, 2002. "Las tres caras del riesgo estratégico: riesgo sistemático, riesgo táctico y riesgo idiosincrásico," DEE - Documentos de Trabajo. Economía de la Empresa. DB db021508, Universidad Carlos III de Madrid. Departamento de Economía de la Empresa.
    2. repec:bla:stratm:v:38:y:2017:i:13:p:2704-2725 is not listed on IDEAS
    3. Cano Rodríguez, Manuel & Núñez-Nickel, Manuel, 2002. "Is the risk-return paradox still alive?," DEE - Working Papers. Business Economics. WB wb024818, Universidad Carlos III de Madrid. Departamento de Economía de la Empresa.
    4. repec:spr:infosf:v:14:y:2012:i:3:d:10.1007_s10796-011-9300-6 is not listed on IDEAS
    5. Nickel, Manuel Núñez & Rodriguez, Manuel Cano, 2002. "A review of research on the negative accounting relationship between risk and return: Bowman's paradox," Omega, Elsevier, vol. 30(1), pages 1-18, February.
    6. Rodríguez, Manuel Cano & Nickel, Manuel Núñez, 2003. "Author's reply," Omega, Elsevier, vol. 31(5), pages 413-416, October.
    7. Situmeang, Frederik B.I. & Gemser, Gerda & Wijnberg, Nachoem M. & Leenders, Mark A.A.M, 2016. "Risk-taking behavior of technology firms: The role of performance feedback in the video game industry," Technovation, Elsevier, vol. 54(C), pages 22-34.
    8. Núñez-Nickel, Manuel & Cano Rodríguez, Manuel, 2002. "Comportamiento heterocedástico entre rentabilidad y riesgo," DEE - Documentos de Trabajo. Economía de la Empresa. DB db021710, Universidad Carlos III de Madrid. Departamento de Economía de la Empresa.
    9. Leon Li & Nen-Chen Richard Hwang, 2017. "Prospect Theory and Earnings Manipulation: Examination of the Non-Uniform Relationship between Earnings Manipulation and Stock Returns Using Quantile Regression," Working Papers in Economics 17/25, University of Waikato.

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    Framing; Risk; Strategic Management;


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