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The Relationship Between Shareholding Concentration and Shareholder Voting Power in British Companies: A Study of the Application of Power Indices for Simple Games

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  • Dennis Leech

    (Department of Economics, Warwick University, Coventry CV4 7AL, England)

Abstract

This paper reports an analysis of the relationships between shareholding and voting power distributions in a sample of British companies. It applies two standard approaches to the measurement of power in simple games: the Shapley-Shubik and the Banzhaf power indices. The results indicate that power is more concentrated than ownership in every case. A comparison of the two indices reveals that typically the Banzhaf index gives a more concentrated power distribution. For the Shapley-Shubik index the power ratio for the largest shareholder is accurately described in terms of the size of holding and the concentration of the remainder. The corresponding Banzhaf power ratio is less dependent on these variables. There is no association between power concentration and company size.

Suggested Citation

  • Dennis Leech, 1988. "The Relationship Between Shareholding Concentration and Shareholder Voting Power in British Companies: A Study of the Application of Power Indices for Simple Games," Management Science, INFORMS, vol. 34(4), pages 509-527, April.
  • Handle: RePEc:inm:ormnsc:v:34:y:1988:i:4:p:509-527
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    File URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1287/mnsc.34.4.509
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. Leech, Dennis, 1985. "Ownership Concentration and the Theory of the Firm : A Simple-Game-Theoretic Approach to Applied US Corporations in the 1930's," The Warwick Economics Research Paper Series (TWERPS) 262, University of Warwick, Department of Economics.
    2. Guillermo Owen, 1972. "Multilinear Extensions of Games," Management Science, INFORMS, vol. 18(5-Part-2), pages 64-79, January.
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    Cited by:

    1. Crespi, R. & Renneboog, L.D.R., 2000. "United we stand : Corporate Monitoring by Shareholder Coalitions in the UK," Discussion Paper 2000-18, Tilburg University, Center for Economic Research.
    2. Pongou, Roland & Tchantcho, Bertrand & Tedjeugang, Narcisse, 2014. "Power theories for multi-choice organizations and political rules: Rank-order equivalence," Operations Research Perspectives, Elsevier, vol. 1(1), pages 42-49.
    3. Edwards, Jeremy S.S. & Weichenrieder, Alfons J., 2009. "Control rights, pyramids, and the measurement of ownership concentration," Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, Elsevier, vol. 72(1), pages 489-508, October.
    4. Guemmegne, Juliette T. & Pongou, Roland, 2014. "A policy-based rationalization of collective rules: Dimensionality, specialized houses, and decentralized authority," Journal of Mathematical Economics, Elsevier, vol. 52(C), pages 182-193.
    5. André Casajus & Helfried Labrenz & Tobias Hiller, 2009. "Majority shareholder protection by variable qualified majority rules," European Journal of Law and Economics, Springer, vol. 28(1), pages 9-18, August.
    6. Dennis Leech, 2003. "Computing Power Indices for Large Voting Games," Management Science, INFORMS, vol. 49(6), pages 831-837, June.
    7. Gary Gorton & Frank Schmid, 2000. "Class Struggle Inside the Firm: A Study of German Codetermination," NBER Working Papers 7945, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    8. Crama, Yves & Leruth, Luc, 2007. "Control and voting power in corporate networks: Concepts and computational aspects," European Journal of Operational Research, Elsevier, vol. 178(3), pages 879-893, May.
    9. Jeremy Edwards & Alfons J. Weichenrieder, 2004. "How Weak is the Weakest-Link Principle? On the Measurement of Firm Owners’ Control Rights," CESifo Working Paper Series 1255, CESifo Group Munich.
    10. Casajus, André & Labrenz, Helfried, 2014. "A property rights based consolidation approach," Working Papers 126, University of Leipzig, Faculty of Economics and Management Science.
    11. Muravyev Alexander, 2004. "The Puzzle of Dual Class Stock in Russia. Explaining the Price Differential between Common and Preferred Shares," EERC Working Paper Series 04-07e, EERC Research Network, Russia and CIS.
    12. Leech, D., 2000. "Computing Classical Power Indices For Large Finite Voting Games," The Warwick Economics Research Paper Series (TWERPS) 579, University of Warwick, Department of Economics.
    13. Crespi, R. & Renneboog, L.D.R., 2003. "Corporate monitoring by shareholder coalitions in the UK," Discussion Paper 19, Tilburg University, Tilburg Law and Economic Center.
    14. Marc Levy & Ariane Szafarz, 2017. "Cross-Ownership: A Device for Management Entrenchment?," Review of Finance, European Finance Association, vol. 21(4), pages 1675-1699.
    15. Dennis Leech, 2002. "An Empirical Comparison of the Performance of Classical Power Indices," Political Studies, Political Studies Association, vol. 50(1), pages 1-22, March.
    16. Berezinets Irina & Ilina Yulia & Muravyev Alexander, 2011. "Owners, Boards, Managers and the Private Benefits of Control: A Study of Dual Class Stock Firms in an Emerging Market," EERC Working Paper Series 11/12e, EERC Research Network, Russia and CIS.
    17. Dennis Leech, 2001. "Shareholder Voting Power and Corporate Governance: A Study of Large British Companies," Nordic Journal of Political Economy, Nordic Journal of Political Economy, vol. 27, pages 33-54.
    18. Nicodano, Giovanna & Sembenelli, Alessandro, 2004. "Private benefits, block transaction premiums and ownership structure," International Review of Financial Analysis, Elsevier, vol. 13(2), pages 227-244.
    19. Leech, Dennis, 2002. "Computation of Power Indices," The Warwick Economics Research Paper Series (TWERPS) 644, University of Warwick, Department of Economics.
    20. Berezinets, Irina & Ilina, Yulia & Muravyev, Alexander, 2011. "CEO and Board Characteristics as Determinants of Private Benefits of Control: Evidence from the Russian Stock Exchange," IZA Discussion Papers 6256, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
    21. Dennis Leech & Miguel Manjón, 2002. "Corporate Governance in Spain (with an Application of the Power Indices Approach)," European Journal of Law and Economics, Springer, vol. 13(2), pages 157-173, March.

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