Asymmetrical Contributions to the Tragedy of the Commons and Some Implications for Conservation
In Garrett Hardinâ€™s popular essay on â€œThe Tragedy of the Commonsâ€, he presents a model of a shared commons where herdsmen graze their cattle to illustrate the tension between group and self-interest that characterizes so many social dilemmas. However, Hardin is not explicit that consumption can actually vary widely among herdsman, although later, when discussing population growth, he clarifies that â€œpeople varyâ€. People do indeed vary, and here we explore further the prevalence of asymmetrical contributions to the tragedy of the commons. We also provide several examples to demonstrate that asymmetries have been frequently underappreciated by conservation initiatives. Given that many of todayâ€™s major environmental problems, such as climate change, freshwater shortages, and overfishing, are problems of users or groups of users over-consuming common resources asymmetrically, we believe identifying patterns of consumption is a necessary first step in solving any social dilemma, and can help elucidate priority areas for conservation.
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- Janssen, Marco A. & Anderies, John M. & Cardenas, Juan-Camilo, 2011. "Head-enders as stationary bandits in asymmetric commons: Comparing irrigation experiments in the laboratory and the field," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 70(9), pages 1590-1598, July.
- Froese, Rainer & Proelss, Alexander, 2012. "Evaluation and legal assessment of certified seafood," Marine Policy, Elsevier, vol. 36(6), pages 1284-1289.
- Marco Janssen & John Anderies & Sanket Joshi, 2011. "Coordination and cooperation in asymmetric commons dilemmas," Experimental Economics, Springer, vol. 14(4), pages 547-566, November.
- Elinor Ostrom & Roy Gardner, 1993. "Coping with Asymmetries in the Commons: Self-Governing Irrigation Systems Can Work," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 7(4), pages 93-112, Fall.
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