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Ecology and the Tragedy of the Commons

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  • Peter Roopnarine

    (Department of Invertebrate Zoology & Geology, California Academy of Sciences, 55 Music Concourse Drive, San Francisco, CA 94118, USA)

Abstract

This paper develops mathematical models of the tragedy of the commons analogous to ecological models of resource consumption. Tragedies differ fundamentally from predator–prey relationships in nature because human consumers of a resource are rarely controlled solely by that resource. Tragedies do occur, however, at the level of the ecosystem, where multiple species interactions are involved. Human resource systems are converging rapidly toward ecosystem-type systems as the number of exploited resources increase, raising the probability of system-wide tragedies in the human world. Nevertheless, common interests exclusive of exploited commons provide feasible options for avoiding tragedy in a converged world.

Suggested Citation

  • Peter Roopnarine, 2013. "Ecology and the Tragedy of the Commons," Sustainability, MDPI, vol. 5(2), pages 1-25, February.
  • Handle: RePEc:gam:jsusta:v:5:y:2013:i:2:p:749-773:d:23620
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. Barabási, Albert-László & Albert, Réka & Jeong, Hawoong, 2000. "Scale-free characteristics of random networks: the topology of the world-wide web," Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications, Elsevier, vol. 281(1), pages 69-77.
    2. Steven H. Strogatz, 2001. "Exploring complex networks," Nature, Nature, vol. 410(6825), pages 268-276, March.
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    Cited by:

    1. He, Jialu & Wang, Jianwei & Yu, Fengyuan & Chen, Wei & Xu, Wenshu, 2022. "The persistence and transition of multiple public goods games resolves the social dilemma," Applied Mathematics and Computation, Elsevier, vol. 418(C).
    2. Carlos M. Paredes & Andrés F. Bayona & Diego Martínez & Alfons Crespo & Apolinar González & José Simo, 2021. "Approach to an Emulation Model to Evaluate the Behavior and Impact of Microgrids in Isolated Communities," Energies, MDPI, vol. 14(17), pages 1-34, August.
    3. Manzoor, Talha & Rovenskaya, Elena & Muhammad, Abubakr, 2016. "Game-theoretic insights into the role of environmentalism and social-ecological relevance: A cognitive model of resource consumption," Ecological Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 340(C), pages 74-85.
    4. Perissi, Ilaria & Bardi, Ugo & El Asmar, Toufic & Lavacchi, Alessandro, 2017. "Dynamic patterns of overexploitation in fisheries," Ecological Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 359(C), pages 285-292.

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