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Indoor Environmental Quality and Consumption Patterns before and during the COVID-19 Lockdown in Twelve Social Dwellings in Madrid, Spain

Author

Listed:
  • Fernando de Frutos

    (Instituto de Ciencias de la Construcción Eduardo Torroja, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (IETcc-CSIC), 28033 Madrid, Spain)

  • Teresa Cuerdo-Vilches

    (Instituto de Ciencias de la Construcción Eduardo Torroja, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (IETcc-CSIC), 28033 Madrid, Spain)

  • Carmen Alonso

    (Instituto de Ciencias de la Construcción Eduardo Torroja, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (IETcc-CSIC), 28033 Madrid, Spain)

  • Fernando Martín-Consuegra

    (Instituto de Ciencias de la Construcción Eduardo Torroja, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (IETcc-CSIC), 28033 Madrid, Spain)

  • Borja Frutos

    (Instituto de Ciencias de la Construcción Eduardo Torroja, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (IETcc-CSIC), 28033 Madrid, Spain)

  • Ignacio Oteiza

    (Instituto de Ciencias de la Construcción Eduardo Torroja, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (IETcc-CSIC), 28033 Madrid, Spain)

  • Miguel Ángel Navas-Martín

    (Escuela Nacional de Sanidad, Instituto de Salud Carlos III (ENS, ISCIII), 28029 Madrid, Spain)

Abstract

This article analyses the situation that prevailed in 12 dwellings located on the outskirts of Madrid during Spain’s state of emergency. How did 24/7 occupation affect the quality of indoor air and power consumption patterns? The mixed method used (surveys and instrumental monitoring) pragmatically detected the variation in consumption, comfort and indoor air quality patterns before and during the COVID-19 pandemic. The characteristics initially in place and household predisposition had a conclusive effect on such variations. The starting conditions, including household composition, habits and the way daily activities were performed, differed widely, logically affecting power consumption: 8/12 case studies increase occupancy density by more than 25 percent; 11/12 improve thermal comfort; 10/12 improve air quality but not necessarily translate in a sufficient ventilation practices; air quality was lower in the bedrooms on the whole; only 4/12 case studies use the potential of passive measures; only one household adopted energy savings strategies; 10/12 case studies increase electric power consumption but none of the dwellings was fitted with a renewable power generation system. The conclusion drawn is that, despite starting conditions differing widely, household composition, habits (including performance of daily activities performance) and power consumption also played an active role in the end result. This approach allowed to integrate qualitative and quantitative findings on indoor environmental quality (IEQ), energy use and households’ behavior. The objective data on the energy situation of the case studies not only is useful for the study, but also for potential enrollment in energy rehabilitation programs, such as the European Regional Development Fund (ERDF).

Suggested Citation

  • Fernando de Frutos & Teresa Cuerdo-Vilches & Carmen Alonso & Fernando Martín-Consuegra & Borja Frutos & Ignacio Oteiza & Miguel Ángel Navas-Martín, 2021. "Indoor Environmental Quality and Consumption Patterns before and during the COVID-19 Lockdown in Twelve Social Dwellings in Madrid, Spain," Sustainability, MDPI, vol. 13(14), pages 1-45, July.
  • Handle: RePEc:gam:jsusta:v:13:y:2021:i:14:p:7700-:d:591603
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    Cited by:

    1. Silvia Perez-Bezos & Anna Figueroa-Lopez & Matxalen Etxebarria-Mallea & Xabat Oregi & Rufino Javier Hernandez-Minguillon, 2022. "Assessment of Social Housing Energy and Thermal Performance in Relation to Occupants’ Behaviour and COVID-19 Influence—A Case Study in the Basque Country, Spain," Sustainability, MDPI, vol. 14(9), pages 1-22, May.
    2. Miguel Ángel Navas-Martín & José Antonio López-Bueno & Ignacio Oteiza & Teresa Cuerdo-Vilches, 2021. "Routines, Time Dedication and Habit Changes in Spanish Homes during the COVID-19 Lockdown. A Large Cross-Sectional Survey," IJERPH, MDPI, vol. 18(22), pages 1-16, November.

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