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Modern and Traditional Methods for Measuring Money Supply: The Case of Saudi Arabia


  • William A. Barnett

    () (Department of Economics, University of Kansas, Lawrence, KS 66045-7585, USA
    Center for Financial Stability, New York, NY 10036, USA)

  • Ryadh M. Alkhareif

    () (Saudi Arabian Monetary Agency, Riyadh 11169, Saudi Arabia)


This paper compares the “simple-sum” monetary aggregates (M1 and M2) published by the Saudi Arabian Monetary Agency (SAMA) with the new monetary aggregates (D1 and D2)—known as the Divisia monetary indexes. The former aggregates are constructed from a simple accounting identity, whereas the Divisia aggregates are constructed using statistical index number theory and aggregation theory. The findings suggest that both D1 and M1 are identical, given the perfect substitutability of the monetary components within those aggregates. For the broader monetary aggregates where perfect substitutability assumption is not realistic, the two monetary indexes differ substantially. SAMA could benefit by using both monetary indexes simultaneously to better monitor liquidity in the market.

Suggested Citation

  • William A. Barnett & Ryadh M. Alkhareif, 2015. "Modern and Traditional Methods for Measuring Money Supply: The Case of Saudi Arabia," International Journal of Financial Studies, MDPI, Open Access Journal, vol. 3(1), pages 1-7, February.
  • Handle: RePEc:gam:jijfss:v:3:y:2015:i:1:p:49-55:d:46123

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Ryadh M. Alkhareif & William Barnett, 2012. "Divisia Monetary Aggregates for the GCC Countries," WORKING PAPERS SERIES IN THEORETICAL AND APPLIED ECONOMICS 201209, University of Kansas, Department of Economics, revised Aug 2012.
    2. Startz, Richard, 1979. "Implicit interest on demand deposits," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 5(4), pages 515-534, October.
    3. Barnett, William A., 2012. "Getting it Wrong: How Faulty Monetary Statistics Undermine the Fed, the Financial System, and the Economy," MIT Press Books, The MIT Press, edition 1, volume 1, number 0262516888.
    4. Barnett, William A., 1980. "Economic monetary aggregates an application of index number and aggregation theory," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 14(1), pages 11-48, September.
    5. William Barnett & Fredj Jawadi, 2012. "Introduction to Recent Developments in Alternative Finance: Empirical Assessments and Economic Implications," WORKING PAPERS SERIES IN THEORETICAL AND APPLIED ECONOMICS 201237, University of Kansas, Department of Economics, revised Sep 2012.
    6. Apostolos Serletis & Periklis Gogas, 2014. "Divisia Monetary Aggregates, the Great Ratios, and Classical Money Demand Functions," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 46(1), pages 229-241, February.
    7. Barnett, William A, 1982. "The Optimal Level of Monetary Aggregation," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 14(4), pages 687-710, November.
    8. Klein, Benjamin, 1974. "Competitive Interest Payments on Bank Deposits and the Long-Run Demand for Money," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 64(6), pages 931-949, December.
    9. Barnett, William A, 1981. "The New Monetary Aggregates: A Comment," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 13(4), pages 485-489, November.
    10. Barnett, William A., 1978. "The user cost of money," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 1(2), pages 145-149.
    11. Barnett, William A, 1979. "The Joint Allocation of Leisure and Goods Expenditure," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 47(3), pages 539-563, May.
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    Cited by:

    1. Ryadh M. Alkhareif & William A. Barnett, 2015. "Core Inflation Indicators for Saudi Arabia," Panoeconomicus, Savez ekonomista Vojvodine, Novi Sad, Serbia, vol. 62(3), pages 257-266, June.
    2. Alkhareif, Ryadh, 2016. "Are there significant premiums in the Saudi stock market?," Finance Research Letters, Elsevier, vol. 18(C), pages 108-115.
    3. repec:ebl:ecbull:eb-19-00022 is not listed on IDEAS

    More about this item


    monetary aggregation; Divisia monetary aggregates; index number theory;

    JEL classification:

    • G1 - Financial Economics - - General Financial Markets
    • G2 - Financial Economics - - Financial Institutions and Services
    • G3 - Financial Economics - - Corporate Finance and Governance
    • F2 - International Economics - - International Factor Movements and International Business
    • F3 - International Economics - - International Finance
    • F41 - International Economics - - Macroeconomic Aspects of International Trade and Finance - - - Open Economy Macroeconomics
    • F42 - International Economics - - Macroeconomic Aspects of International Trade and Finance - - - International Policy Coordination and Transmission


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