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Developing country borrowing and domestic wealth

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  • Mark Gertler
  • Kenneth S. Rogoff

Abstract

We show that across developing countries, external debt to private creditors rises more than proportionately with income. We then develop a simple theoretical model consistent with this phenomenon and also consistent with the well-documented relationship between capital market development and growth. Our framework stresses information asymmetries at the level of individual borrowers as the source of frictions in world capital markets. Because of moral hazard problems, marginal products of capital and borrowing-lending spreads are higher in poorer countries. In a two-country version of the model, we demonstrate the possibility of a siphoning effect which exacerbates the costs of transfers. Also because of the siphoning effect, increased wealth in the rich country can stunt investment in the poor country.
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Suggested Citation

  • Mark Gertler & Kenneth S. Rogoff, 1989. "Developing country borrowing and domestic wealth," Proceedings, Federal Reserve Bank of San Francisco.
  • Handle: RePEc:fip:fedfpr:y:1989:x:4
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. Mark Gertler, 1988. "Financial structure and aggregate economic activity: an overview," Proceedings, Federal Reserve Bank of Cleveland, pages 559-596.
    2. Fernandez, R. & Rosenthal, R.W., 1988. "Sovereign-Debt Renegotiations: A Strtegic Analysis," Papers 85, Boston University - Center for Latin American Development Studies.
    3. Greenwood, Jeremy & Williamson, Stephen D., 1989. "International financial intermediation and aggregate fluctuations under alternative exchange rate regimes," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 23(3), pages 401-431, May.
    4. Jensen, Michael C. & Meckling, William H., 1976. "Theory of the firm: Managerial behavior, agency costs and ownership structure," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 3(4), pages 305-360, October.
    5. Atkeson, Andrew, 1991. "International Lending with Moral Hazard and Risk of Repudiation," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 59(4), pages 1069-1089, July.
    6. Avinash Dixit, 2005. "Trade And Insurance With Moral Hazard," World Scientific Book Chapters,in: An Inframarginal Approach To Trade Theory, chapter 4, pages 53-74 World Scientific Publishing Co. Pte. Ltd..
    7. Stulz, ReneM., 1986. "Capital mobility in the world economy: Theory and measurement A comment," Carnegie-Rochester Conference Series on Public Policy, Elsevier, vol. 24(1), pages 105-113, January.
    8. Feldstein, Martin & Horioka, Charles, 1980. "Domestic Saving and International Capital Flows," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 90(358), pages 314-329, June.
    9. Bulow, Jeremy & Rogoff, Kenneth, 1989. "A Constant Recontracting Model of Sovereign Debt," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 97(1), pages 155-178, February.
    10. Steven M. Fazzari & R. Glenn Hubbard & Bruce C. Petersen, 1988. "Financing Constraints and Corporate Investment," Brookings Papers on Economic Activity, Economic Studies Program, The Brookings Institution, vol. 19(1), pages 141-206.
    11. Frankel, Jeffrey A. & MacArthur, Alan T., 1988. "Political vs. currency premia in international real interest differentials : A study of forward rates for 24 countries," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 32(5), pages 1083-1114, June.
    12. Bernanke, Ben & Gertler, Mark, 1989. "Agency Costs, Net Worth, and Business Fluctuations," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 79(1), pages 14-31, March.
    13. Gertler, M., 1988. "Financial Capacity, Reliquification, And Production In An Economy With Long-Tem Financial Arrangements," Working papers 8820, Wisconsin Madison - Social Systems.
    14. Obstfeld, Maurice, 1986. "Capital mobility in the world economy: Theory and measurement," Carnegie-Rochester Conference Series on Public Policy, Elsevier, vol. 24(1), pages 55-103, January.
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    Cited by:

    1. Niloy Bose & Jill A. Holman & Kyriakos C. Neanidis, 2007. "The Optimal Public Expenditure Financing Policy: Does The Level Of Economic Development Matter?," Economic Inquiry, Western Economic Association International, vol. 45(3), pages 433-452, July.
    2. Carmen M. Reinhart & Kenneth S. Rogoff, 2004. "Serial Default and the "Paradox" of Rich-to-Poor Capital Flows," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 94(2), pages 53-58, May.
    3. Sule Ozler & Guido Tabellini, 1991. "External Debt and Political Instability," NBER Working Papers 3772, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    4. Reichlin, Pietro, 2006. "Relating Output and Volatility in a Model of International Risk-Sharing with Limited Commitment," CEPR Discussion Papers 5557, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
    5. Ricardo N. Bebczuk, 2000. "Financiamiento empresario, desarrollo financiero y crecimiento," Premio de Banca Central Rodrigo Gómez / Central Banking Award "Rodrigo Gómez", Centro de Estudios Monetarios Latinoamericanos, CEMLA, number prg2000, enero-jun.
    6. repec:rnp:ecopol:ep1711 is not listed on IDEAS
    7. Ricardo N. Bebczuk, 2000. "Corporate Finance, Financial Development, and Growth," Premio de Banca Central Rodrigo Gómez / Central Banking Award "Rodrigo Gómez", Centro de Estudios Monetarios Latinoamericanos, CEMLA, number prg2000eng, enero-jun.

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    Keywords

    Capital market;

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