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Social Protection Beyond the Bottom Billion

Author

Listed:
  • Susan Murphy

    (Trinity College Dublin)

  • Patrick Paul Walsh

    (University College Dublin)

Abstract

Most conceptualisations of the bottom billion assume that “the poor” are a minority group in a state of continuous dependency, identifiable by region and demographic. Using a flow analysis (inflow and outflow) of poverty, rather than a stock analysis, we explain why poverty is more appropriately understood as a dynamic, with the majority of people flowing in and out of poverty for short durations. Distinguishing between structural and transitory poverty gives rise to a focus on the identification of multiple constituencies in the wider population including the permanently poor; sometimes poor; and non-poor. External shocks, including economic and environmental shifts, and risks such as ill-health, can affect any individual, household, or population in a non-predictable way, and can lead to loss of livelihood and a decent into poverty for various durations. At any point in time the bottom billion is made up of a blend of both transitory and structural elements with the former reflecting poverty as a risk for a much wider population than is often assumed. Using this analysis, the total stock of poverty potentially entails up to 5.1 billion people who do not have access to comprehensive social protection systems and are therefore vulnerable to spells in poverty. To protect against shared risks and mutual vulnerabilities, this paper argues that global insurance instruments, regulated through domestic institutions, would provide an efficient solution to transitory poverty. Further, it argues that these instruments could provide a foundation for investment in more equitable and extensive social protection measures that could target the multiple dimensions of structural poverty thereby seeking to ensure that no one is left behind.

Suggested Citation

  • Susan Murphy & Patrick Paul Walsh, 2014. "Social Protection Beyond the Bottom Billion," The Economic and Social Review, Economic and Social Studies, vol. 45(2), pages 261-284.
  • Handle: RePEc:eso:journl:v:45:y:2014:i:2:p:261-284
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. Gentilini, Ugo & Omamo, Steven Were, 2011. "Social protection 2.0: Exploring issues, evidence and debates in a globalizing world," Food Policy, Elsevier, vol. 36(3), pages 329-340, June.
    2. Grootaert, Christiaan & Kanbur, Ravi & Gi-Taik Oh, 1995. "The dynamics of poverty : why some people escape from poverty and others don't - an African case study," Policy Research Working Paper Series 1499, The World Bank.
    3. Frank Ellis & Stephen Devereux & Phillip White, 2009. "Social Protection in Africa," Books, Edward Elgar Publishing, number 13393.
    4. Sen, Amartya, 1993. "Markets and Freedoms: Achievements and Limitations of the Market Mechanism in Promoting Individual Freedoms," Oxford Economic Papers, Oxford University Press, vol. 45(4), pages 519-541, October.
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    More about this item

    Keywords

    poverty; social protection;

    JEL classification:

    • O35 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Innovation; Research and Development; Technological Change; Intellectual Property Rights - - - Social Innovation
    • O43 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Economic Growth and Aggregate Productivity - - - Institutions and Growth
    • J65 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Mobility, Unemployment, Vacancies, and Immigrant Workers - - - Unemployment Insurance; Severance Pay; Plant Closings
    • J68 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Mobility, Unemployment, Vacancies, and Immigrant Workers - - - Public Policy

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