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Disentangling Bargaining Power from Individual and Household Level to Institutions: Evidence on Women's Position in Ethiopia

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  • Mabsout, Ramzi
  • van Staveren, Irene

Abstract

Summary Women's bargaining power is generally analyzed only with individual level and household level variables. We add a third level, namely institutional bargaining power. We define this as bargaining power which one party freely derives from unequal social norms. In the bargaining literature there is a common paradoxical finding, namely that more access to and control over individual resources sometimes decreases rather than increases women's bargaining outcomes. With household survey data from Ethiopia and making use of multilevel modeling and an aggregate model with interaction terms, we suggest that this paradoxical effect can be explained by very unequal gender norms--gendered institutions--at the group level. In our case, we used ethnic groups to show that in groups where gender norms are very unequal, individual and household level bargaining power variables effects are mediated by ethnic-gendered institutions. A policy implication of our findings is that gender policy may become more effective with shifting the emphasis from a largely individual approach to an institutional approach to support women's empowerment.

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  • Mabsout, Ramzi & van Staveren, Irene, 2010. "Disentangling Bargaining Power from Individual and Household Level to Institutions: Evidence on Women's Position in Ethiopia," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 38(5), pages 783-796, May.
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:wdevel:v:38:y:2010:i:5:p:783-796
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    2. Welter, Friederike & Brush, Candida & De Bruin, Anne, 2014. "The gendering of entrepreneurship context," Working Papers 01/14, Institut für Mittelstandsforschung (IfM) Bonn.
    3. Doss, Cheryl, 2013. "Intrahousehold bargaining and resource allocation in developing countries," Policy Research Working Paper Series 6337, The World Bank.
    4. Karolina Goraus & Joanna Tyrowicz, 2013. "The Goodwill Effect? Female Access to the Labor Market Over Transition: A Multicountry Analysis," Working Papers 2013-19, Faculty of Economic Sciences, University of Warsaw.
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    7. Sneyers, Astrid & Vandeplas, Anneleen, 2015. "A Gender Gap in Agricultural Productivity? Evidence from the Dairy Sector in India," 2015 Conference, August 9-14, 2015, Milan, Italy 212062, International Association of Agricultural Economists.
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    9. Seymour, Gregory & Peterman, Amber, 2017. "Understanding the measurement of women’s autonomy: Illustrations from Bangladesh and Ghana," IFPRI discussion papers 1656, International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI).
    10. Gunseli Berik & Ebru Kongar, 2011. "Time Use of Mothers and Fathers in Hard Times and Better Times: The US Business Cycle of 2003-10," Economics Working Paper Archive wp_696, Levy Economics Institute.
    11. Anderson, C. Leigh & Reynolds, Travis W. & Gugerty, Mary Kay, 2017. "Husband and Wife Perspectives on Farm Household Decision-making Authority and Evidence on Intra-household Accord in Rural Tanzania," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 90(C), pages 169-183.
    12. Ramzi Mabsout, 2011. "Capability and Health Functioning in Ethiopian Households," Social Indicators Research: An International and Interdisciplinary Journal for Quality-of-Life Measurement, Springer, vol. 101(3), pages 359-389, May.
    13. Colfer, Carol J. Pierce & Achdiawan, Ramadhani & Roshetko, James M. & Mulyoutami, Elok & Yuliani, E. Linda & Mulyana, Agus & Moeliono, Moira & Adnan, Hasantoha & Erni,, 2015. "The Balance of Power in Household Decision-Making: Encouraging News on Gender in Southern Sulawesi," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 76(C), pages 147-164.
    14. Günseli Berik & Ebru Kongar, 2011. "Time Use of Mothers and Fathers in Hard Times and Better Times: the U.S. Business Cycle of 2003-2010," Working Paper Series, Department of Economics, University of Utah 2011_16, University of Utah, Department of Economics.
    15. Lee, In Hyeock & Paik, Yongsun & Uygur, Ugur, 2016. "Does Gender Matter in the Export Performance of International New Ventures? Mediation Effects of Firm-specific and Country-specific Advantages," Journal of International Management, Elsevier, vol. 22(4), pages 365-379.
    16. Pierluigi Conzo & Giulia Fuochi & Letizia Mencarini, 2017. "Fertility and Life Satisfaction in Rural Ethiopia," Demography, Springer;Population Association of America (PAA), vol. 54(4), pages 1331-1351, August.
    17. Karolina Goraus & Joanna Tyrowicz & Lucas van der Velde, 2017. "How (Not) to Make Women Work?," GRAPE Working Papers 1, GRAPE Group for Research in Applied Economics.
    18. Tigabu D. Getahun & Espen Villanger, 2015. "Labor-intensive jobs for women and development: Intrahousehold welfare effects and its transmission channels," CMI Working Papers 15, CMI (Chr. Michelsen Institute), Bergen, Norway.
    19. Dasgupta, Utteeyo & Mani, Subha, 2015. "Only Mine or All Ours: Do Stronger Entitlements Affect Altruistic Choices in the Household," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 67(C), pages 363-375.
    20. Mekonnen, Dawit & Hira, Channa & Claudia, Ringler, "undated". "Where to invest in the Indus Basin Irrigation System in Pakistan to improve land and water productivity? Insights from a hierarchical model," 2016 Annual Meeting, July 31-August 2, 2016, Boston, Massachusetts 235977, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association.
    21. Lincove, Jane Arnold, 2015. "Improving Identification of Demand-Side Obstacles to Schooling: Findings from Revealed and Stated Preference Models in Two SSA Countries," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 66(C), pages 69-83.
    22. Johnson, Nancy & Njuki, Jemimah & Waithanji, Elizabeth & Nhambeto, Marinho & Rogers, Martha & Kruger, Elizabeth Hutchinson, 2013. "The gendered impacts of agricultural asset transfer projects: Lessons from the Manica Smallholder Dairy Development Program:," CAPRi working papers 115, International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI).
    23. Irene van Staveren, 2013. "How gendered institutions constrain women’s empowerment," Chapters,in: Handbook of Research on Gender and Economic Life, chapter 10, pages 150-166 Edward Elgar Publishing.
    24. Selamah Yusof, 2015. "Household Decision-Making in Malaysia: The Ethnic Dimension," Social Indicators Research: An International and Interdisciplinary Journal for Quality-of-Life Measurement, Springer, vol. 124(1), pages 283-293, October.
    25. Gottlieb, Jessica, 2016. "Why Might Information Exacerbate the Gender Gap in Civic Participation? Evidence from Mali," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 86(C), pages 95-110.

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