IDEAS home Printed from
   My bibliography  Save this article

An exploratory analysis of relationships between socioeconomic, land use, activity participation variables and travel patterns


  • Pitombo, C.S.
  • Kawamoto, E.
  • Sousa, A.J.


This paper aims to find relations between the socioeconomic characteristics, activity participation, land use patterns and travel behavior of the residents in the São Paulo Metropolitan Area (SPMA) by using Exploratory Multivariate Data Analysis (EMDA) techniques. The variables influencing travel pattern choices are investigated using: (a) Cluster Analysis (CA), grouping and characterizing the Traffic Zones (TZ), proposing the independent variable called Origin Cluster and, (b) Decision Tree (DT) to find a priori unknown relations among socioeconomic characteristics, land use attributes of the origin TZ and destination choices. The analysis was based on the origin-destination home-interview survey carried out in SPMA in 1997. The DT application revealed the variables of greatest influence on the travel pattern choice. The most important independent variable considered by DT is car ownership, followed by the Use of Transportation "credits" for Transit tariff, and, finally, activity participation variables and Origin Cluster. With these results, it was possible to analyze the influence of a family income, car ownership, position of the individual in the family, use of transportation "credits" for transit tariff (mainly for travel mode sequence choice), activities participation (activity sequence choice) and Origin Cluster (destination/travel distance choice).

Suggested Citation

  • Pitombo, C.S. & Kawamoto, E. & Sousa, A.J., 2011. "An exploratory analysis of relationships between socioeconomic, land use, activity participation variables and travel patterns," Transport Policy, Elsevier, vol. 18(2), pages 347-357, March.
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:trapol:v:18:y:2011:i:2:p:347-357

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL:
    Download Restriction: Full text for ScienceDirect subscribers only

    As the access to this document is restricted, you may want to search for a different version of it.

    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Tim Schwanen & Martin Dijst & Frans M Dieleman, 2002. "A microlevel analysis of residential context and travel time," Environment and Planning A, Pion Ltd, London, vol. 34(8), pages 1487-1507, August.
    2. Stead, D., 1999. "Relationships between transport emissions and travel patterns in Britain," Transport Policy, Elsevier, vol. 6(4), pages 247-258, October.
    3. E I Pas, 1984. "The Effect of Selected Sociodemographic Characteristics on Daily Travel-Activity Behavior," Environment and Planning A, , vol. 16(5), pages 571-581, May.
    4. Lu, Xuedong & Pas, Eric I., 1999. "Socio-demographics, activity participation and travel behavior," Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, Elsevier, vol. 33(1), pages 1-18, January.
    5. Giuliano, Genevieve, 1995. "The Weakening Transportation-Land Use Connection," University of California Transportation Center, Working Papers qt1dn8t3w7, University of California Transportation Center.
    6. E I Pas, 1984. "The effect of selected sociodemographic characteristics on daily travel-activity behavior," Environment and Planning A, Pion Ltd, London, vol. 16(5), pages 571-581, May.
    7. Boarnet, Marlon & Crane, Randall, 2001. "The influence of land use on travel behavior: specification and estimation strategies," Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, Elsevier, vol. 35(9), pages 823-845, November.
    8. Golob, Thomas F. & McNally, Michael G., 1997. "A model of activity participation and travel interactions between household heads," Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Elsevier, vol. 31(3), pages 177-194, June.
    9. Karthik Srinivasan & Sudhakar Athuru, 2005. "Analysis of within-household effects and between-household differences in maintenance activity allocation," Transportation, Springer, vol. 32(5), pages 495-521, September.
    10. Bhat, Chandra R. & Singh, Sujit K., 2000. "A comprehensive daily activity-travel generation model system for workers," Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, Elsevier, vol. 34(1), pages 1-22, January.
    11. Bhat, Chandra R. & Koppelman, Frank S., 1993. "A conceptual framework of individual activity program generation," Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, Elsevier, vol. 27(6), pages 433-446, November.
    12. Cervero, Robert & Radisch, Carolyn, 1996. "Travel choices in pedestrian versus automobile oriented neighborhoods," Transport Policy, Elsevier, vol. 3(3), pages 127-141, July.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)


    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.

    Cited by:

    1. Marquet, Oriol & Miralles-Guasch, Carme, 2014. "Walking short distances. The socioeconomic drivers for the use of proximity in everyday mobility in Barcelona," Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, Elsevier, vol. 70(C), pages 210-222.
    2. repec:gam:jsusta:v:9:y:2017:i:6:p:1043-:d:101740 is not listed on IDEAS
    3. repec:gam:jsusta:v:9:y:2017:i:4:p:558-:d:95081 is not listed on IDEAS
    4. Soria-Lara, Julio A. & Aguilera-Benavente, Francisco & Arranz-López, Aldo, 2016. "Integrating land use and transport practice through spatial metrics," Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, Elsevier, vol. 91(C), pages 330-345.


    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:eee:trapol:v:18:y:2011:i:2:p:347-357. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Dana Niculescu). General contact details of provider: .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.