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Immigration and the health of U.S. black adults: Does country of origin matter?

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  • Hamilton, Tod G.
  • Hummer, Robert A.

Abstract

Previous work suggests that regional variation in pre-migration exposure to racism and discrimination, measured by a region's racial composition, predicts differences in individual-level health among black immigrants to the United States. We exploit data on both region and country of birth for black immigrants in the United States and methodology that allows for the identification of arrival cohorts to test whether there are sending country differences in the health of black adults in the United States that support this proposition. While testing this hypothesis, we also document heterogeneity in health across arrival cohorts and by duration of U.S. residence among black immigrants. Using data on working-age immigrant and U.S.-born blacks taken from the 1996–2010 waves of the March Current Population Survey, we show that relative to U.S.-born black adults, black immigrants report significantly lower odds of fair/poor health. After controlling for relevant social and demographic characteristics, immigrants’ cohort of arrival, and immigrants’ duration in the United States, our models show only modest differences in health between African immigrants and black immigrants who migrate from the other major sending countries or regions. Results also show that African immigrants maintain their health advantage over U.S.-born black adults after more than 20 years in the United States. In contrast, black immigrants from the Caribbean who have been in the United States for more than 20 years appear to experience some downward health assimilation. In conclusion, after accounting for relevant factors, we find that there are only modest differences in black immigrant health across countries of origin. Black immigrants appear to be very highly selected in terms of good health, although there are some indications of negative health assimilation for black immigrants from the Caribbean.

Suggested Citation

  • Hamilton, Tod G. & Hummer, Robert A., 2011. "Immigration and the health of U.S. black adults: Does country of origin matter?," Social Science & Medicine, Elsevier, vol. 73(10), pages 1551-1560.
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:socmed:v:73:y:2011:i:10:p:1551-1560 DOI: 10.1016/j.socscimed.2011.07.026
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    Citations

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    Cited by:

    1. Ro, Annie & Fleischer, Nancy L. & Blebu, Bridgette, 2016. "An examination of health selection among U.S. immigrants using multi-national data," Social Science & Medicine, Elsevier, pages 114-121.
    2. Alcántara, Carmela & Chen, Chih-Nan & Alegría, Margarita, 2014. "Do post-migration perceptions of social mobility matter for Latino immigrant health?," Social Science & Medicine, Elsevier, pages 94-106.
    3. Afulani, Patience A. & Torres, Jacqueline M. & Sudhinaraset, May & Asunka, Joseph, 2016. "Transnational ties and the health of sub-Saharan African migrants: The moderating role of gender and family separation," Social Science & Medicine, Elsevier, pages 63-71.
    4. Jackson, Chandra L. & Hu, Frank B. & Redline, Susan & Williams, David R. & Mattei, Josiemer & Kawachi, Ichiro, 2014. "Racial/ethnic disparities in short sleep duration by occupation: The contribution of immigrant status," Social Science & Medicine, Elsevier, pages 71-79.
    5. Rivera, Berta & Casal, Bruno & Currais, Luis, 2013. "Healthy Immigrant Effect: Trayectoria de salud de la población inmigrante a partir de la ENSE 2011-2012/Healthy Immigrant Effect: An Empirical Approach to the Health Trajectory of Immigrant Population," Estudios de Economía Aplicada, Estudios de Economía Aplicada, vol. 31, pages 339-358, Septiembr.
    6. repec:eee:socmed:v:195:y:2017:i:c:p:105-114 is not listed on IDEAS
    7. Reynolds, Megan M. & Chernenko, Alla & Read, Jen'nan Ghazal, 2016. "Region of origin diversity in immigrant health: Moving beyond the Mexican case," Social Science & Medicine, Elsevier, pages 102-109.

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