Do ETFs provide effective international diversification?
Global investments have been a hot issue for years. Investors can diversify risks and obtain benefits from foreign markets by investing directly in the foreign security market or indirectly in Exchange-Trade Funds (ETFs). Because direct investments are not always feasible, we investigate whether indirect investments can replace direct investments. We create different regional optimal portfolios containing ETFs and ensure optimal asset portfolio allocation. In addition to mean-variance approach, the Sharpe index, we also adopt the Campbell et al. (2001) method to have the efficient frontier under control risks, the Value at Risk. We apply both normal and non-normal distributions for comparisons and find that different assumptions of return distributions affect the results of efficient frontier. The results show that international diversification is a reasonable strategy. In addition, when comparing ETFs and target market index portfolios, ETFs have higher Sharpe measures than target market indices especially in the emerging markets. However, there are no significant performance differences between direct and indirect methods even if we use different performance measures. We also find that the diversification benefits are the same before and after the Subprime crisis. We conclude that it is effective for investors to use indirect methods to create internationally diversified portfolios.
If you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.
As the access to this document is restricted, you may want to look for a different version under "Related research" (further below) or search for a different version of it.
References listed on IDEAS
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Patrick F. Rowland & Linda L. Tesar, 2004.
"Multinationals and the Gains from International Diversification,"
Review of Economic Dynamics,
Elsevier for the Society for Economic Dynamics, vol. 7(4), pages 789-826, October.
- Patrick F. Rowland & Linda L. Tesar, 1998. "Multinationals and the Gains from International Diversification," NBER Working Papers 6733, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Rowland, P.F. & Tesar, L.L., 1998. "Multinationals and the Gains from International Diversification," Working Papers 425, Research Seminar in International Economics, University of Michigan.
- Chang, Eric & Eun, Cheol S. & Kolodny, Richard, 1995. "International diversification through closed-end country funds," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 19(7), pages 1237-1263, October.
- James M. Poterba & John B. Shoven, 2002.
"Exchange-Traded Funds: A New Investment Option for Taxable Investors,"
American Economic Review,
American Economic Association, vol. 92(2), pages 422-427, May.
- James M. Poterba & John B. Shoven, 2002. "Exchange Traded Funds: A New Investment Option for Taxable Investors," NBER Working Papers 8781, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Philippe Jorion & William N. Goetzmann, 1999. "Global Stock Markets in the Twentieth Century," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 54(3), pages 953-980, 06.
- Harvey, Campbell R, 1995.
"Predictable Risk and Returns in Emerging Markets,"
Review of Financial Studies,
Society for Financial Studies, vol. 8(3), pages 773-816.
- Bali, Turan G., 2000. "Testing the Empirical Performance of Stochastic Volatility Models of the Short-Term Interest Rate," Journal of Financial and Quantitative Analysis, Cambridge University Press, vol. 35(02), pages 191-215, June.
- Meric, Ilhan & Meric, Gulser, 1989. "Potential gains from international portfolio diversification and inter-temporal stability and seasonality in international stock market relationships," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 13(4-5), pages 627-640, September.
- Campbell, Rachel & Huisman, Ronald & Koedijk, Kees, 2001. "Optimal portfolio selection in a Value-at-Risk framework," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 25(9), pages 1789-1804, September.
- Pin-Huang Chou, 1997. "A test of relative efficiency between two sets of securities," Applied Financial Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 7(2), pages 192-195.
- Levy, Haim & Sarnat, Marshall, 1970. "International Diversification of Investment Portfolios," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 60(4), pages 668-75, September.
- Berrill, Jenny, 2010. "Firm-level analysis of the international diversification of small integrated stock markets: Ireland 1999-2007," Research in International Business and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 24(2), pages 172-189, June.
- Anita K. Pennathur & Natalya Delcoure & Dwight Anderson, 2002. "Diversification Benefits of iShares and Closed-End Country Funds," Journal of Financial Research, Southern Finance Association;Southwestern Finance Association, vol. 25(4), pages 541-557.
- Patro, Dilip Kumar, 2001. "Market Segmentation and International Asset Prices: Evidence from the Listing of World Equity Benchmark Shares," Journal of Financial Research, Southern Finance Association;Southwestern Finance Association, vol. 24(1), pages 83-98, Spring.
When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:eee:riibaf:v:25:y:2011:i:3:p:335-344. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Zhang, Lei)
If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.
If the full references list an item that is present in RePEc, but the system did not link to it, you can help with this form.
If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.
Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.