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Renewability of wind power in China: A case study of nonrenewable energy cost and greenhouse gas emission by a plant in Guangxi

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  • Chen, G.Q.
  • Yang, Q.
  • Zhao, Y.H.

Abstract

The high degree of renewability of wind power in China is illustrated by a case study of nonrenewable energy cost and greenhouse gas emission to a typical wind farm in Guangxi. The account for the life cycle of components manufacturing and transportation, installation, operation, maintenance, disassembly and disposal is based on the embodiment intensities of nonrenewable energy use and greenhouse gas emission by an environmental extended input-output analysis for typical commodities in the Chinese economy. The nonrenewable energy cost and greenhouse gas emissions are estimated, respectively, as 0.047 MJ and 0.002 kg CO2-eq for 1 MJ of electricity by the wind farm plant, respectively 56 and 108 times less than those of the average coal plant in China. Considering the dominance of coal power, the nonrenewable energy saving is estimated at 1.22E+10 MJ during its 20 years operating period, while the reduced greenhouse gas emissions are 1.03E+09 kg CO2-eq by the wind farm studied. Compared with the study of the wind farms worldwide, the nonrenewable energy cost intensity of Chinese 1.25 MW wind turbines is in the median range, and the GHG emission intensity is at the lower end of the scale. The concrete results have essential policy making implications supportive to a further spread of wind power technology in China.

Suggested Citation

  • Chen, G.Q. & Yang, Q. & Zhao, Y.H., 2011. "Renewability of wind power in China: A case study of nonrenewable energy cost and greenhouse gas emission by a plant in Guangxi," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 15(5), pages 2322-2329, June.
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:rensus:v:15:y:2011:i:5:p:2322-2329
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    2. Yang, Jin & Chen, Bin, 2013. "Integrated evaluation of embodied energy, greenhouse gas emission and economic performance of a typical wind farm in China," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 27(C), pages 559-568.
    3. Zhao, Xiaoli & Zhang, Sufang & Yang, Rui & Wang, Mei, 2012. "Constraints on the effective utilization of wind power in China: An illustration from the northeast China grid," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 16(7), pages 4508-4514.
    4. Zhao, Xiaoli & Wang, Feng & Wang, Mei, 2012. "Large-scale utilization of wind power in China: Obstacles of conflict between market and planning," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 48(C), pages 222-232.
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    6. repec:eee:ecomod:v:252:y:2013:i:c:p:63-71 is not listed on IDEAS
    7. Arvesen, Anders & Hertwich, Edgar G., 2012. "Assessing the life cycle environmental impacts of wind power: A review of present knowledge and research needs," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 16(8), pages 5994-6006.
    8. Ozoemena, Matthew & Hasan, Reaz & Cheung, Wai Ming, 2016. "Analysis of technology improvement opportunities for a 1.5 MW wind turbine using a hybrid stochastic approach in life cycle assessment," Renewable Energy, Elsevier, vol. 93(C), pages 369-382.
    9. repec:eee:appene:v:206:y:2017:i:c:p:1267-1281 is not listed on IDEAS
    10. repec:eee:enepol:v:111:y:2017:i:c:p:222-234 is not listed on IDEAS
    11. Wu, X.D. & Xia, X.H. & Chen, G.Q. & Wu, X.F. & Chen, B., 2016. "Embodied energy analysis for coal-based power generation system-highlighting the role of indirect energy cost," Applied Energy, Elsevier, pages 936-950.
    12. Ortega, Margarita & del Río, Pablo & Montero, Eduardo A., 2013. "Assessing the benefits and costs of renewable electricity. The Spanish case," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 27(C), pages 294-304.
    13. Wang, Changbo & Zhang, Lixiao & Chang, Yuan & Pang, Mingyue, 2015. "Biomass direct-fired power generation system in China: An integrated energy, GHG emissions, and economic evaluation for Salix," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 84(C), pages 155-165.
    14. Zhou, Kaile & Yang, Shanlin & Shen, Chao & Ding, Shuai & Sun, Chaoping, 2015. "Energy conservation and emission reduction of China’s electric power industry," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 45(C), pages 10-19.
    15. Yang, Jin & Chen, Bin, 2016. "Energy–water nexus of wind power generation systems," Applied Energy, Elsevier, pages 1-13.
    16. Shao, Ling & Chen, G.Q., 2016. "Renewability assessment of a production system: Based on embodied energy as emergy," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 57(C), pages 380-392.
    17. Zhang, Xiaohong & Wu, Liqian & Zhang, Rong & Deng, Shihuai & Zhang, Yanzong & Wu, Jun & Li, Yuanwei & Lin, Lili & Li, Li & Wang, Yinjun & Wang, Lilin, 2013. "Evaluating the relationships among economic growth, energy consumption, air emissions and air environmental protection investment in China," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 18(C), pages 259-270.
    18. Yang, Qing & Han, Fei & Chen, Yingquan & Yang, Haiping & Chen, Hanping, 2016. "Greenhouse gas emissions of a biomass-based pyrolysis plant in China," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 53(C), pages 1580-1590.
    19. Li, Xue & Lin, Cong & Wang, Yang & Zhao, Lingying & Duan, Na & Wu, Xudong, 2015. "Analysis of rural household energy consumption and renewable energy systems in Zhangziying town of Beijing," Ecological Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 318(C), pages 184-193.
    20. Wu, X.D. & Yang, Q. & Chen, G.Q. & Hayat, T. & Alsaedi, A., 2016. "Progress and prospect of CCS in China: Using learning curve to assess the cost-viability of a 2×600MW retrofitted oxyfuel power plant as a case study," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 60(C), pages 1274-1285.
    21. Nugent, Daniel & Sovacool, Benjamin K., 2014. "Assessing the lifecycle greenhouse gas emissions from solar PV and wind energy: A critical meta-survey," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 65(C), pages 229-244.
    22. Yang, Q. & Chen, G.Q. & Liao, S. & Zhao, Y.H. & Peng, H.W. & Chen, H.P., 2013. "Environmental sustainability of wind power: An emergy analysis of a Chinese wind farm," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 25(C), pages 229-239.
    23. Yang, Jin & Chen, Bin, 2014. "Global warming impact assessment of a crop residue gasification project—A dynamic LCA perspective," Applied Energy, Elsevier, pages 269-279.

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