How to organise operations: Focusing or splitting?
The concept of focus has been proposed as a method for operations to achieve superior performance by concentrating its resources on accomplishing one strategic task. Since its development by Skinner [1974. The focused factory. Harvard Business Review May-June, 113-121], it has become a key element within the operations strategy field. Despite the high level of adoption and investigation into the subject, there still seems to be little empirical support for the focus concept [Vokurka, R.J., Davis, R.A., 2000. Focused factories: empirical study of structural and performance differences. Production and Inventory Management Journal 41(1), 44-55] and a feeling that we still do not adequately understand its application in industry [Ketokivi, M., Jokinen, M., 2006. Strategy, uncertainty and the focused factory in international process manufacturing. Journal of Operations Management 24(3), 250-270]. This case-study-based research paper examines three organisations, that have organised their operations using four different approaches, to understand the advantages and disadvantages they bring. The findings show that some approaches (process and product/market) do not fully reduce the level of complexity within operations, whilst others do (market order-winner and qualifier/performance objectives). It is therefore proposed that some approaches should be re-classified as "splitting" rather than "focusing."
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- Jeffrey G. Miller & Aleda V. Roth, 1994. "A Taxonomy of Manufacturing Strategies," Management Science, INFORMS, vol. 40(3), pages 285-304, March.
- Thomas Brush & Aneel Karnani, 1996. "Impact of Plant Size and Focus on Productivity: An Empirical Study," Management Science, INFORMS, vol. 42(7), pages 1065-1081, July.
- Shafer, Scott M. & Oswald, Sharon L., 1996. "Product-focused manufacturing for strategic advantage," Business Horizons, Elsevier, vol. 39(6), pages 24-29.
- van der Vaart, Taco & van Donk, Dirk Pieter, 2004. "Buyer focus: Evaluation of a new concept for supply chain integration," International Journal of Production Economics, Elsevier, vol. 92(1), pages 21-30, November.
- M. Hossein Safizadeh & Larry P. Ritzman & Deven Sharma & Craig Wood, 1996. "An Empirical Analysis of the Product-Process Matrix," Management Science, INFORMS, vol. 42(11), pages 1576-1591, November.
- van der Vaart, Taco & Wijngaard, Jacob, 2007. "The contribution of focus in collaborative planning for make-to-order production situation with large set-up times," International Journal of Production Economics, Elsevier, vol. 108(1-2), pages 436-443, July.
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