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India's demand for international reserve and monetary disequilibrium: Reserve adequacy under floating regime


  • Mishra, Ritesh Kumar
  • Sharma, Chandan


The main aim of this study is to investigate India's demand for international reserve by focusing on the role of national monetary disequilibrium and to present new benchmarks for assessing the adequacy of international reserves. We assessed India's position in terms of reserve adequacy and found that India is well placed and has sufficient stock of international reserves to meet the minimum adequacy requirements. Also, the results reveal that the central bank is holding substantial excess reserves and the related opportunity cost (1.5% of GDP) appears to be quite considerable. Further, the estimates of reserve demand function suggest that scale of foreign trade, uncertainty and profitability considerations play significant role in determining India's long-term reserve demand policies. More importantly, validating the monetary approach to balance of payment, our results show that national monetary disequilibrium does play a crucial role in short-run reserve movements. An excess of money demand (supply) induces an inflow (outflow) of international reserves with an elasticity of 0.56 which also implies that Reserve Bank of India responds to correct the domestic money market disequilibrium; and did not just leave it completely on the mercy of reserve inflows.

Suggested Citation

  • Mishra, Ritesh Kumar & Sharma, Chandan, 2011. "India's demand for international reserve and monetary disequilibrium: Reserve adequacy under floating regime," Journal of Policy Modeling, Elsevier, vol. 33(6), pages 901-919.
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:jpolmo:v:33:y:2011:i:6:p:901-919 DOI: 10.1016/j.jpolmod.2011.03.005

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    References listed on IDEAS

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    Cited by:

    1. Chandan Sharma & Sunny K Singh, 2014. "Determinants of International Reserves: Empirical Evidence from Emerging Asia," Economics Bulletin, AccessEcon, vol. 34(3), pages 1696-1703.
    2. Reddy, Kotapati Srinivasa & Nangia, Vinay Kumar & Agrawal, Rajat, 2013. "Indian economic-policy reforms, bank mergers, and lawful proposals: The ex-ante and ex-post ‘lookup’," Journal of Policy Modeling, Elsevier, vol. 35(4), pages 601-622.
    3. Reddy, Kotapati Srinivasa, 2015. "Macroeconomic Change, and Cross-border Mergers and Acquisitions: The Indian Experience, 1991-2010," MPRA Paper 63562, University Library of Munich, Germany, revised 2015.
    4. Andrieș, Alin Marius & Ihnatov, Iulian & Tiwari, Aviral Kumar, 2014. "Analyzing time–frequency relationship between interest rate, stock price and exchange rate through continuous wavelet," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 41(C), pages 227-238.

    More about this item


    Reserve adequacy; Opportunity cost; National monetary disequilibrium; GARCH; India;

    JEL classification:

    • F4 - International Economics - - Macroeconomic Aspects of International Trade and Finance
    • F31 - International Economics - - International Finance - - - Foreign Exchange
    • F32 - International Economics - - International Finance - - - Current Account Adjustment; Short-term Capital Movements
    • C22 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Single Equation Models; Single Variables - - - Time-Series Models; Dynamic Quantile Regressions; Dynamic Treatment Effect Models; Diffusion Processes


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