IDEAS home Printed from
   My bibliography  Save this article

Gender equity in health and the influence of intrapersonal factors on adolescent girls' decisions to bicycle to school


  • Frater, Jillian
  • Kingham, Simon


Decreasing levels of physical activity and increasing prevalence of chronic health conditions including obesity, diabetes and cardiovascular disease are global problems. Bicycling to school is a way to increase physical activity and reduce the prevalence of these conditions. In locations such as Christchurch, New Zealand, where adolescent girls cycle to school far less than boys, there is potential for a lack of gender equity in health. Focus groups were held with adolescent girls at three Christchurch high schools in 2012 and 2013. Separate focus groups were held for year 9/10 (13–14 years-old) and year 13 (16–17 years-old) girls. Girls' decisions to cycle to school were found to be affected by injunctive and descriptive cycling norms in relation to both friends and parents, in addition to concerns about image, being social, being feminine and shunning physical activity, gender attribution, cycling confidence and personal security concerns. To achieve gender equity in health and improve the health and the opportunities available to girls to independently engage in social, educational, vocational and sporting activities, it is necessary to take into account the intrapersonal factors that affect girls' decisions to cycle to school.

Suggested Citation

  • Frater, Jillian & Kingham, Simon, 2018. "Gender equity in health and the influence of intrapersonal factors on adolescent girls' decisions to bicycle to school," Journal of Transport Geography, Elsevier, vol. 71(C), pages 130-138.
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:jotrge:v:71:y:2018:i:c:p:130-138
    DOI: 10.1016/j.jtrangeo.2018.07.011

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL:
    Download Restriction: no

    File URL:
    LibKey link: if access is restricted and if your library uses this service, LibKey will redirect you to where you can use your library subscription to access this item

    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Ajzen, Icek, 1991. "The theory of planned behavior," Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, Elsevier, vol. 50(2), pages 179-211, December.
    2. Colin Black & Alan Collins & Martin Snell, 2001. "Encouraging Walking: The Case of Journey-to-school Trips in Compact Urban Areas," Urban Studies, Urban Studies Journal Limited, vol. 38(7), pages 1121-1141, June.
    3. Roger Beecham & Jo Wood, 2014. "Exploring gendered cycling behaviours within a large-scale behavioural data-set," Transportation Planning and Technology, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 37(1), pages 83-97, February.
    4. McMillan, Tracy & Day, Kristen & Boarnet, Marlon & Alfonzo, Mariela & Anderson, Craig, 2006. "Johnny Walks to School - Does Jane? Sex Differences in Children's Active Travel to School," University of California Transportation Center, Working Papers qt22f7k6z8, University of California Transportation Center.
    5. Pucher, John & Garrard, Jan & Greaves, Stephen, 2011. "Cycling down under: a comparative analysis of bicycling trends and policies in Sydney and Melbourne," Journal of Transport Geography, Elsevier, vol. 19(2), pages 332-345.
    6. Steinbach, Rebecca & Green, Judith & Datta, Jessica & Edwards, Phil, 2011. "Cycling and the city: A case study of how gendered, ethnic and class identities can shape healthy transport choices," Social Science & Medicine, Elsevier, vol. 72(7), pages 1123-1130, April.
    7. Pikora, Terri & Giles-Corti, Billie & Bull, Fiona & Jamrozik, Konrad & Donovan, Rob, 2003. "Developing a framework for assessment of the environmental determinants of walking and cycling," Social Science & Medicine, Elsevier, vol. 56(8), pages 1693-1703, April.
    8. Emond, Catherine R. & Handy, Susan L., 2012. "Factors associated with bicycling to high school: insights from Davis, CA," Journal of Transport Geography, Elsevier, vol. 20(1), pages 71-79.
    9. Anable, Jillian, 2005. "'Complacent Car Addicts' or 'Aspiring Environmentalists'? Identifying travel behaviour segments using attitude theory," Transport Policy, Elsevier, vol. 12(1), pages 65-78, January.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)


    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.

    Cited by:

    1. Esther Fasan & Miles Tight & Harry Evdorides, 2021. "Factors Influencing Cycling among Secondary School Adolescents in an Ethnically Diverse City: The Perspective of Birmingham Transport Stakeholders," Sustainability, MDPI, vol. 13(22), pages 1-17, November.
    2. Doran, Alexandra & El-Geneidy, Ahmed & Manaugh, Kevin, 2021. "The pursuit of cycling equity: A review of Canadian transport plans," Journal of Transport Geography, Elsevier, vol. 90(C).
    3. Mohammad Lutfur Rahman & Antoni Moore & Melody Smith & John Lieswyn & Sandra Mandic, 2020. "A Conceptual Framework for Modelling Safe Walking and Cycling Routes to High Schools," IJERPH, MDPI, vol. 17(9), pages 1-16, May.
    4. Regina Márcia Ferreira Silva & Lauryane Fonseca Terra & Michele da Silva Valadão Fernandes & Priscilla Rayanne E. Silva Noll & Luiz Carlos de Abreu & Matias Noll, 2022. "Barriers to Physical Activity among Full-Time Students: A Case Study during the COVID-19 Pandemic," Sustainability, MDPI, vol. 14(19), pages 1-17, September.
    5. Frater, Jillian & Kingham, Simon, 2020. "Adolescents and bicycling to school: Does behaviour setting/place make a difference?," Journal of Transport Geography, Elsevier, vol. 85(C).
    6. Russell, Marie & Davies, Cheryl & Wild, Kirsty & Shaw, Caroline, 2021. "Pedalling towards equity: Exploring women's cycling in a New Zealand city," Journal of Transport Geography, Elsevier, vol. 91(C).
    7. Andrew F. Clark & Melissa Thomas & Adrian Buttazzoni & Matthew Adams & Stephanie E. Coen & Jamie Seabrook & Danielle Tobin & Trish Tucker & Jason Gilliland, 2023. "Validating the Perceived Active School Travel Enablers and Barriers–Parent (PASTEB–P) Questionnaire to Support Intervention Programming and Research," IJERPH, MDPI, vol. 20(10), pages 1-23, May.

    Most related items

    These are the items that most often cite the same works as this one and are cited by the same works as this one.
    1. Frater, Jillian & Kingham, Simon, 2020. "Adolescents and bicycling to school: Does behaviour setting/place make a difference?," Journal of Transport Geography, Elsevier, vol. 85(C).
    2. Osborne, Natalie & Grant-Smith, Deanna, 2017. "Constructing the cycling citizen: A critical analysis of policy imagery in Brisbane, Australia," Journal of Transport Geography, Elsevier, vol. 64(C), pages 44-53.
    3. Elias, Wafa & Katoshevski-Cavari, Rachel, 2014. "The role of socio-economic and environmental characteristics in school-commuting behavior: A comparative study of Jewish and Arab children in Israel," Transport Policy, Elsevier, vol. 32(C), pages 79-87.
    4. Stewart, Orion & Vernez Moudon, Anne & Claybrooke, Charlotte, 2012. "Common ground: Eight factors that influence walking and biking to school," Transport Policy, Elsevier, vol. 24(C), pages 240-248.
    5. Vinayak, Pragun & Dias, Felipe F. & Astroza, Sebastian & Bhat, Chandra R. & Pendyala, Ram M. & Garikapati, Venu M., 2018. "Accounting for multi-dimensional dependencies among decision-makers within a generalized model framework: An application to understanding shared mobility service usage levels," Transport Policy, Elsevier, vol. 72(C), pages 129-137.
    6. Singh, Nishant & Vasudevan, Vinod, 2018. "Understanding school trip mode choice – The case of Kanpur (India)," Journal of Transport Geography, Elsevier, vol. 66(C), pages 283-290.
    7. Mao Ye & Yajing Chen & Guixin Yang & Bo Wang & Qizhou Hu, 2020. "Mixed Logit Models for Travelers’ Mode Shifting Considering Bike-Sharing," Sustainability, MDPI, vol. 12(5), pages 1-18, March.
    8. Prati, Gabriele & Fraboni, Federico & De Angelis, Marco & Pietrantoni, Luca & Johnson, Daniel & Shires, Jeremy, 2019. "Gender differences in cycling patterns and attitudes towards cycling in a sample of European regular cyclists," Journal of Transport Geography, Elsevier, vol. 78(C), pages 1-7.
    9. Underwood, Sarah & Handy, Susan L., 2012. "Adolescent Attitudes Towards Active Transportation: Bicycling in Youth in Retrospect from Adulthood," Institute of Transportation Studies, Working Paper Series qt993019hq, Institute of Transportation Studies, UC Davis.
    10. Milad Mehdizadeh & Trond Nordfjaern & AmirReza Mamdoohi, 2018. "The role of socio-economic, built environment and psychological factors in parental mode choice for their children in an Iranian setting," Transportation, Springer, vol. 45(2), pages 523-543, March.
    11. De Vos, Jonas & Derudder, Ben & Van Acker, Veronique & Witlox, Frank, 2012. "Reducing car use: changing attitudes or relocating? The influence of residential dissonance on travel behavior," Journal of Transport Geography, Elsevier, vol. 22(C), pages 1-9.
    12. Uba, Chijioke Dike & Chatzidakis, Andreas, 2016. "Understanding engagement and disengagement from pro-environmental behaviour: The role of neutralization and affirmation techniques in maintaining persistence in and desistance from car use," Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, Elsevier, vol. 94(C), pages 278-294.
    13. Zhu, Charles & Zhu, Yiliang & Lu, Rongzhu & He, Ren & Xia, Zhaolin, 2012. "Perceptions and aspirations for car ownership among Chinese students attending two universities in the Yangtze Delta, China," Journal of Transport Geography, Elsevier, vol. 24(C), pages 315-323.
    14. Grischkat, Sylvie & Hunecke, Marcel & Böhler, Susanne & Haustein, Sonja, 2014. "Potential for the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions through the use of mobility services," Transport Policy, Elsevier, vol. 35(C), pages 295-303.
    15. Yoon-Young Chun & Mitsutaka Matsumoto & Kiyotaka Tahara & Kenichiro Chinen & Hideki Endo, 2019. "Exploring Factors Affecting Car Sharing Use Intention in the Southeast-Asia Region: A Case Study in Java, Indonesia," Sustainability, MDPI, vol. 11(18), pages 1-26, September.
    16. McDonald, Noreen C., 2008. "Household interactions and children’s school travel: the effect of parental work patterns on walking and biking to school," Journal of Transport Geography, Elsevier, vol. 16(5), pages 324-331.
    17. De Vos, Jonas, 2018. "Do people travel with their preferred travel mode? Analysing the extent of travel mode dissonance and its effect on travel satisfaction," Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, Elsevier, vol. 117(C), pages 261-274.
    18. Li, Shengxiao & Zhao, Pengjun, 2015. "The determinants of commuting mode choice among school children in Beijing," Journal of Transport Geography, Elsevier, vol. 46(C), pages 112-121.
    19. Brand, Christian & Schwanen, Tim & Anable, Jillian, 2020. "‘Online Omnivores’ or ‘Willing but struggling’? Identifying online grocery shopping behavior segments using attitude theory," Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services, Elsevier, vol. 57(C).
    20. Schwanen, Tim & Banister, David & Anable, Jillian, 2012. "Rethinking habits and their role in behaviour change: the case of low-carbon mobility," Journal of Transport Geography, Elsevier, vol. 24(C), pages 522-532.


    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:eee:jotrge:v:71:y:2018:i:c:p:130-138. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a bibliographic reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: Catherine Liu (email available below). General contact details of provider: .

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service. RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.