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Reference pricing and firms' pricing strategies

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  • Miraldo, Marisa

Abstract

Within a horizontal differentiation model and allowing for heterogeneous qualities, we analyze the effects of reference pricing reimbursement on firms' pricing strategies. With this analysis we find inherent incentives for firms' pricing behavior, and consequently we shed some light on the time consistency of such policy. The analysis encompasses different reference price rules: (i) reference price as the minimum of the observed prices in the market, (ii) reference price as a linear combination of firms' prices. Results show that under the "minimum policy" firms are not able to coordinate on higher prices while the "linear policy", implicitly, provides a coordination device. We have also found that, relatively to the "linear policy", when the reference price is the minimum of observed prices, after policy implementation, total and private expenditures are higher and consumer surplus and firms' profits are lower. With quality differentiation both the minimum and linear policies unambiguously lead to higher prices.

Suggested Citation

  • Miraldo, Marisa, 2009. "Reference pricing and firms' pricing strategies," Journal of Health Economics, Elsevier, vol. 28(1), pages 176-197, January.
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:jhecon:v:28:y:2009:i:1:p:176-197
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. Brekke, Kurt R. & Konigbauer, Ingrid & Straume, Odd Rune, 2007. "Reference pricing of pharmaceuticals," Journal of Health Economics, Elsevier, vol. 26(3), pages 613-642, May.
    2. Marisa Miraldo, 2007. "Reference Pricing Versus Co-Payment in the Pharmaceutical Industry: Price, Quality and Market Coverage," Working Papers 025cherp, Centre for Health Economics, University of York.
    3. Jorge Mestre, 2003. "Reference prices: The Spanish way," Investigaciones Economicas, Fundación SEPI, vol. 27(1), pages 125-149, January.
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    5. Ma, Ching-to Albert, 1994. "Health Care Payment Systems: Cost and Quality Incentives," Journal of Economics & Management Strategy, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 3(1), pages 93-112, Spring.
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    Cited by:

    1. repec:kap:ijhcfe:v:17:y:2017:i:4:d:10.1007_s10754-017-9216-x is not listed on IDEAS
    2. Kaiser, Ulrich & Mendez, Susan J. & Rønde, Thomas & Ullrich, Hannes, 2014. "Regulation of pharmaceutical prices: Evidence from a reference price reform in Denmark," Journal of Health Economics, Elsevier, vol. 36(C), pages 174-187.
    3. Herr, A. & Suppliet, M., 2011. "Co-Payment Exemptions and Reference Prices: an Empirical Study of Pharmaceutical Prices in Germany," Health, Econometrics and Data Group (HEDG) Working Papers 11/18, HEDG, c/o Department of Economics, University of York.
    4. Sorek Gilad, 2016. "Competition and Product Choice in Option Demand Markets," The B.E. Journal of Economic Analysis & Policy, De Gruyter, vol. 16(2), pages 785-805, April.
    5. repec:dau:papers:123456789/5987 is not listed on IDEAS
    6. Simone Ghislandi & Patrizio Armeni & Claudio Jommi, 2013. "The impact of generic reference pricing in Italy, a decade on," The European Journal of Health Economics, Springer;Deutsche Gesellschaft für Gesundheitsökonomie (DGGÖ), vol. 14(6), pages 959-969, December.
    7. Brekke, Kurt R. & Holmas, Tor Helge & Straume, Odd Rune, 2011. "Reference pricing, competition, and pharmaceutical expenditures: Theory and evidence from a natural experiment," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 95(7), pages 624-638.
    8. Brekke, Kurt R. & Canta, Chiara & Straume, Odd Rune, 2016. "Reference pricing with endogenous generic entry," Journal of Health Economics, Elsevier, vol. 50(C), pages 312-329.
    9. Julia Graf, 2014. "The effects of rebate contracts on the health care system," The European Journal of Health Economics, Springer;Deutsche Gesellschaft für Gesundheitsökonomie (DGGÖ), vol. 15(5), pages 477-487, June.
    10. Matteo Galizzi & Simone Ghislandi & Marisa Miraldo, 2011. "Effects of Reference Pricing in Pharmaceutical Markets," PharmacoEconomics, Springer, vol. 29(1), pages 17-33, January.
    11. David Granlund & Miyase Koksal-Ayhan, 2015. "Parallel imports and a mandatory substitution reform: a kick or a muff for price competition in pharmaceuticals?," The European Journal of Health Economics, Springer;Deutsche Gesellschaft für Gesundheitsökonomie (DGGÖ), vol. 16(9), pages 969-983, December.
    12. Granlund, David & Köksal, Miyase Yesim, 2011. "Parallel Imports and Mandatory Substitution Reform - A Kick or A Muff for Price Competition in Pharmaceuticals?," HUI Working Papers 49, HUI Research.
    13. Paolo Buonanno & Matteo M. Galizzi, 2009. "Advocatus, et non latro? Testing the supplier-induced demand hypothesis for Italian courts of justice," Working Papers 0914, University of Brescia, Department of Economics.
    14. Ghislandi, Simone, 2011. "Competition and the Reference Pricing Scheme for pharmaceuticals," Journal of Health Economics, Elsevier, vol. 30(6), pages 1137-1149.
    15. Ricardo Gonçalves & Vasco Rodrigues & Hélder Vasconcelos, 2015. "Reference pricing in the presence of pseudo-generics," International Journal of Health Economics and Management, Springer, vol. 15(3), pages 281-305, September.
    16. Geng, Difei & Saggi, Kamal, 2017. "International effects of national regulations: External reference pricing and price controls," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 109(C), pages 68-84.
    17. Gilad Sorek, 2015. "Health Insurance and Competition in Health Care Markets," Auburn Economics Working Paper Series auwp2015-03, Department of Economics, Auburn University.
    18. Charitini Stavropoulou & Tommaso Valletti, 2015. "Compulsory licensing and access to drugs," The European Journal of Health Economics, Springer;Deutsche Gesellschaft für Gesundheitsökonomie (DGGÖ), vol. 16(1), pages 83-94, January.
    19. Granlund, David & Yesim Köksal, Miyase, 2011. "Parallel Imports and Mandatory Substitution Reform: A kick or a muff for price competition in pharmaceuticals," Working Papers in Economics 496, University of Gothenburg, Department of Economics.
    20. Yesim Köksal, Miyase, 2009. "REFERENCE PRICING - Making Parallel Trade in Pharmaceuticals Work," Working Papers in Economics 367, University of Gothenburg, Department of Economics, revised 01 May 2011.
    21. Graf, Julia, 2012. "The effects of rebate contracts on the health care system," DICE Discussion Papers 45, University of Düsseldorf, Düsseldorf Institute for Competition Economics (DICE).
    22. Herr, Annika & Stühmeier, Torben & Wenzel, Tobias, 2014. "Reference pricing and cost-sharing: Theory and evidence on German off-patent drugs," Annual Conference 2014 (Hamburg): Evidence-based Economic Policy 100556, Verein für Socialpolitik / German Economic Association.

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