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Patents and the Global Diffusion of New Drugs

Author

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  • Iain M. Cockburn
  • Jean O. Lanjouw
  • Mark Schankerman

Abstract

Analysis of the timing of launches of 642 new drugs in 76 countries during 1983-2002 shows that patent and price regulation regimes strongly affect how quickly new drugs become commercially available in different countries. Price regulation delays launch, while longer and more extensive patent rights accelerate it. Health policy institutions and economic and demographic factors that make markets more profitable also speed up diffusion. The estimated effects are generally robust to controlling for endogeneity of policy regimes with country fixed effects and instrumental variables. The results highlight the important role of policy choices in driving the diffusion of new innovations. (JEL I18, L11, L51, L65, O31, O33, O34)

Suggested Citation

  • Iain M. Cockburn & Jean O. Lanjouw & Mark Schankerman, 2016. "Patents and the Global Diffusion of New Drugs," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 106(1), pages 136-164, January.
  • Handle: RePEc:aea:aecrev:v:106:y:2016:i:1:p:136-64
    Note: DOI: 10.1257/aer.20141482
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    2. Max Nathan & Anna Rosso, 2017. "Innovative events," Development Working Papers 429, Centro Studi Luca d'Agliano, University of Milano, revised 08 Apr 2019.
    3. Margaret K. Kyle, 2019. "The Single Market in Pharmaceuticals," Review of Industrial Organization, Springer;The Industrial Organization Society, vol. 55(1), pages 111-135, August.
    4. Bond, Eric W. & Samuelson, Larry, 2019. "Bargaining with private information and the option of a compulsory license," Games and Economic Behavior, Elsevier, vol. 114(C), pages 83-100.
    5. Moreno Gigi & van Eijndhoven Emma & Benner Jennifer & Sullivan Jeffrey, 2017. "The Long-Term Impact of Price Controls in Medicare Part D," Forum for Health Economics & Policy, De Gruyter, vol. 20(2), pages 1-56, December.
    6. Shamim S. Mondal & Viswanath Pingali, 2017. "Competition and Intellectual Property Policies in the Indian Pharmaceutical Sector," Vikalpa: The Journal for Decision Makers, , vol. 42(2), pages 61-79, June.
    7. Billette de Villemeur, Etienne & Ruble, Richard & Versaevel, Bruno, 2019. "Dynamic competition and intellectual property rights in a model of product development," Journal of Economic Dynamics and Control, Elsevier, vol. 100(C), pages 270-296.
    8. Dubois, Pierre & Lefouili, Yassine & Straub, Stéphane, 2021. "Pooled procurement of drugs in low and middle income countries," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 132(C).
    9. Krammer, Sorin M.S., 2018. "A double-edged sword? The antipodal effects of institutional distance on partner selection in cross-border alliances," Journal of World Business, Elsevier, vol. 53(6), pages 930-943.
    10. Yoshimi Okada & Sadao Nagaoka, 2017. "Global Spread of Pharmaceutical Patent Protection: Micro Evidence from the International Equivalents of Drug Patents in Japan," Millennial Asia, , vol. 8(1), pages 26-47, April.
    11. Gamba, Simona, 2017. "The Effect of Intellectual Property Rights on Domestic Innovation in the Pharmaceutical Sector," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 99(C), pages 15-27.
    12. Bronwyn H. Hall, 2020. "Patents, Innovation, and Development," NBER Working Papers 27203, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    13. Bond, Eric W. & Saggi, Kamal, 2020. "Patent protection in developing countries and global welfare: WTO obligations versus flexibilities," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 122(C).
    14. Patricia Laurens & Christian Le Bas & Antoine Schoen, 2019. "Worldwide IP coverage of patented inventions in large pharma firms: to what extent do the internationalisation of R&D and firm strategy matter?," Post-Print hal-01725229, HAL.
    15. Kim, Jinhwan & Valentine, Kristen, 2021. "The innovation consequences of mandatory patent disclosures," Journal of Accounting and Economics, Elsevier, vol. 71(2).
    16. Nancy Gallini, 2017. "Do patents work? Thickets, trolls and antibiotic resistance," Canadian Journal of Economics, Canadian Economics Association, vol. 50(4), pages 893-926, November.
    17. Mai, Joseph & Stoyanov, Andrey, 2019. "Anti-foreign bias in the court: Welfare explanation and evidence from Canadian intellectual property litigations," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 117(C), pages 21-36.
    18. Watal, Jayashree & Dai, Rong, 2019. "Product patents and access to innovative medicines in a post-trips-era," WTO Staff Working Papers ERSD-2019-05, World Trade Organization (WTO), Economic Research and Statistics Division.
    19. Carsten Fink & Bronwyn H. Hall & Christian Helmers, 2018. "Intellectual Property Use in Middle Income Countries: The Case of Chile," NBER Working Papers 24348, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    20. Pilar Beneito & María Engracia Rochina-Barrachina & Amparo Sanchis, 2018. "International patenting decisions: empirical evidence with Spanish firms," Economia Politica: Journal of Analytical and Institutional Economics, Springer;Fondazione Edison, vol. 35(2), pages 579-599, August.
    21. Pilar Beneito & Mari´a E. Rochina-Barrachina & Amparo Sanchis, 2017. "The determinants of international patenting decisions of Spanish firms," Working Papers 1708, Department of Applied Economics II, Universidad de Valencia.

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    More about this item

    JEL classification:

    • I18 - Health, Education, and Welfare - - Health - - - Government Policy; Regulation; Public Health
    • L11 - Industrial Organization - - Market Structure, Firm Strategy, and Market Performance - - - Production, Pricing, and Market Structure; Size Distribution of Firms
    • L51 - Industrial Organization - - Regulation and Industrial Policy - - - Economics of Regulation
    • L65 - Industrial Organization - - Industry Studies: Manufacturing - - - Chemicals; Rubber; Drugs; Biotechnology; Plastics
    • O31 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Innovation; Research and Development; Technological Change; Intellectual Property Rights - - - Innovation and Invention: Processes and Incentives
    • O33 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Innovation; Research and Development; Technological Change; Intellectual Property Rights - - - Technological Change: Choices and Consequences; Diffusion Processes
    • O34 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Innovation; Research and Development; Technological Change; Intellectual Property Rights - - - Intellectual Property and Intellectual Capital

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