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Income diversification and risk: Does ownership matter? An empirical examination of Indian banks

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  • Pennathur, Anita K.
  • Subrahmanyam, Vijaya
  • Vishwasrao, Sharmila

Abstract

We examine the impact of ownership on income diversification and risk for Indian banks over the period 2001–2009. We investigate both the determinants of non-interest income and the impact of diversification on various profitability and insolvency risk measures for public sector, private domestic, and foreign banks. We document that ownership does matter in the pursuit of non-interest income. Relative to private domestic banks, public sector banks earn significantly less fee-income, while foreign banks report higher fee income. Public sector banks with higher levels of governmental ownership are significantly less likely to pursue non-interest income sources. Fee-based income significantly reduces risk, measured by profitability variables, for public sector banks. Default risk is also reduced for these banks. From a regulatory perspective, it appears that diversification benefits India’s public sector banks. Our research has implications for the changes in the risk profile for banks in emerging banking markets pursuing non-interest revenue sources.

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  • Pennathur, Anita K. & Subrahmanyam, Vijaya & Vishwasrao, Sharmila, 2012. "Income diversification and risk: Does ownership matter? An empirical examination of Indian banks," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 36(8), pages 2203-2215.
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:jbfina:v:36:y:2012:i:8:p:2203-2215 DOI: 10.1016/j.jbankfin.2012.03.021
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    Cited by:

    1. Vithessonthi, Chaiporn & Tongurai, Jittima, 2016. "Financial markets development, business cycles, and bank risk in South America," Research in International Business and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 36(C), pages 472-484.
    2. Ghosh, Chinmoy & Hilliard, James & Petrova, Milena & Phani, B.V., 2016. "Economic consequences of deregulation: Evidence from the removal of voting cap in Indian banks," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 72(S), pages 19-38.
    3. Nadia Saghi-Zedek, 2016. "Product diversification and bank performance: does ownership structure matter?," Post-Print halshs-01342528, HAL.
    4. Vithessonthi, Chaiporn, 2016. "Deflation, bank credit growth, and non-performing loans: Evidence from Japan," International Review of Financial Analysis, Elsevier, vol. 45(C), pages 295-305.
    5. Meslier, Céline & Tacneng, Ruth & Tarazi, Amine, 2014. "Is bank income diversification beneficial? Evidence from an emerging economy," Journal of International Financial Markets, Institutions and Money, Elsevier, vol. 31(C), pages 97-126.
    6. Mostak Ahamed, M., 2017. "Asset quality, non-interest income, and bank profitability: Evidence from Indian banks," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 63(C), pages 1-14.
    7. Yiyou Wang, 2016. "An Exploratory Study of Interest Rate Liberalization in Commercial Banks in China," Journal of Applied Management and Investments, Department of Business Administration and Corporate Security, International Humanitarian University, vol. 5(4), pages 270-279, November.
    8. Zhu, Wenyu & Yang, Jiawen, 2016. "State ownership, cross-border acquisition, and risk-taking: Evidence from China’s banking industry," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 71(C), pages 133-153.
    9. Canan Yildirim & Adnan Kasman, 2015. "Bank Market Power and Non-Interest Income in Emerging Markets," Working Papers 930, Economic Research Forum, revised Jul 2015.
    10. Pennathur, Anita & Vishwasrao, Sharmila, 2014. "The financial crisis and bank–client relationships: Foreign ownership, transparency, and portfolio selection," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 42(C), pages 232-246.
    11. Saghi-Zedek, Nadia, 2016. "Product diversification and bank performance: Does ownership structure matter?," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 71(C), pages 154-167.
    12. Nguyen, My & Perera, Shrimal & Skully, Michael, 2016. "Bank market power, ownership, regional presence and revenue diversification: Evidence from Africa," Emerging Markets Review, Elsevier, vol. 27(C), pages 36-62.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Non-interest income; Diversification; Emerging markets; India; Risk in banking; Ownership;

    JEL classification:

    • G15 - Financial Economics - - General Financial Markets - - - International Financial Markets
    • G21 - Financial Economics - - Financial Institutions and Services - - - Banks; Other Depository Institutions; Micro Finance Institutions; Mortgages
    • G28 - Financial Economics - - Financial Institutions and Services - - - Government Policy and Regulation

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