IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/a/eee/jbfina/v33y2009i8p1543-1553.html
   My bibliography  Save this article

Endless leverage certificates

Author

Listed:
  • Rossetto, Silvia
  • Bommel, Jos van

Abstract

An endless leverage certificate (ELC) is a novel retail structured product that gives its holder the right to claim the difference between the value of an underlying security and an interest accruing financing level. An ELC ceases to exist if the underlying breaches a contractual knockout level, if the holder exercises, or if she/he sells it back to the issuer. We use Monte Carlo analysis to value ELCs and find that due to limited liability, a typical ELC written on a typical DAX stock can be worth 0.3% more than its intrinsic value (the difference between the value of the underlying and the financing level). Empirically, we find that in January 2007, the 5129 ELCs issued on the thirty DAX stocks traded at an average premium of 0.67% over the intrinsic value, and that the median bid-ask spread, expressed as a percentage of the underlying, was 0.18%. For covered warrants and options this spread measure was almost twice as high. Finally, we find that upon knockout, investors received on average 3.2% less than the theoretical knockout value, which is consistent with discontinuous trading of the underlying. Overall, our findings suggest that ELCs complete the market for leverage seeking retail investors.

Suggested Citation

  • Rossetto, Silvia & Bommel, Jos van, 2009. "Endless leverage certificates," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 33(8), pages 1543-1553, August.
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:jbfina:v:33:y:2009:i:8:p:1543-1553
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0378-4266(09)00054-5
    Download Restriction: Full text for ScienceDirect subscribers only
    ---><---

    As the access to this document is restricted, you may want to search for a different version of it.

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Stoimenov, Pavel A. & Wilkens, Sascha, 2005. "Are structured products 'fairly' priced? An analysis of the German market for equity-linked instruments," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 29(12), pages 2971-2993, December.
    2. Entrop, Oliver & Scholz, Hendrik & Wilkens, Marco, 2009. "The price-setting behavior of banks: An analysis of open-end leverage certificates on the German market," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 33(5), pages 874-882, May.
    3. Mark Grinblatt & Francis A. Longstaff, 2000. "Financial Innovation and the Role of Derivative Securities: An Empirical Analysis of the Treasury STRIPS Program," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 55(3), pages 1415-1436, June.
    4. Douglas Gale, 1992. "Standard Securities," Review of Economic Studies, Oxford University Press, vol. 59(4), pages 731-755.
    5. Chan, Howard Wei-Hong & Pinder, Sean M., 2000. "The value of liquidity: Evidence from the derivatives market," Pacific-Basin Finance Journal, Elsevier, vol. 8(3-4), pages 483-503, July.
    6. Andreas Grünbichler & Hanspeter Wohlwend, 2005. "The Valuation of Structured Products: Empirical Findings for the Swiss Market," Financial Markets and Portfolio Management, Springer;Swiss Society for Financial Market Research, vol. 19(4), pages 361-380, December.
    7. Stephen A. Ross, 1989. "Institutional Markets, Financial Marketing, and Financial Innovation," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 44(3), pages 541-556, July.
    8. Benet, Bruce A. & Giannetti, Antoine & Pissaris, Seema, 2006. "Gains from structured product markets: The case of reverse-exchangeable securities (RES)," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 30(1), pages 111-132, January.
    9. Hull, John & White, Alan, 1995. "The impact of default risk on the prices of options and other derivative securities," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 19(2), pages 299-322, May.
    10. Biais, Bruno & Hillion, Pierre, 1994. "Insider and Liquidity Trading in Stock and Options Markets," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 7(4), pages 743-780.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Citations

    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.
    as


    Cited by:

    1. repec:mje:mjejnl:v:12:y:2017:i:3:p:7-18 is not listed on IDEAS
    2. Baller, Stefanie & Entrop, Oliver & Schober, Alexander & Wilkens, Marco, 2017. "What drives performance in the speculative market of short-term exchange-traded retail products?," Passauer Diskussionspapiere, Betriebswirtschaftliche Reihe B-26-17, University of Passau, Faculty of Business and Economics.
    3. Martina Bobrikova & Monika Harcarikova, 2017. "Financial Engineering With Options and Its Implementation for Issuing of New Financial Innovations," Montenegrin Journal of Economics, Economic Laboratory for Transition Research (ELIT), vol. 13(3), pages 7-18.
    4. Baller, Stefanie, 2017. "Risk taking in the market of speculative exchange-traded retail products: Do socio-economic factors matter?," Passauer Diskussionspapiere, Betriebswirtschaftliche Reihe B-27-17, University of Passau, Faculty of Business and Economics.
    5. Vincent Soltes & Monika Timkova & Veronika Gicova, 2019. "New Modifications of Express Certificates on Two Assets," Montenegrin Journal of Economics, Economic Laboratory for Transition Research (ELIT), vol. 15(4), pages 113-129.
    6. Marija Corluka & Edwin O. Fischer, 2014. "Forensic Finance: Market Abuse and Price Manipulation in Security Markets on the Trail," The Review of Finance and Banking, Academia de Studii Economice din Bucuresti, Romania / Facultatea de Finante, Asigurari, Banci si Burse de Valori / Catedra de Finante, vol. 6(2), pages 047-067, December.
    7. Bobriková Martina & Harčariková Monika, 2015. "Reverse Bonus Certificate Design and Valuation Using Pricing by Duplication Methods," Scientific Annals of Economics and Business, Sciendo, vol. 62(3), pages 277-289, November.
    8. H. Fink & S. Geissel & J. Sass & F. T. Seifried, 2019. "Implied risk aversion: an alternative rating system for retail structured products," Review of Derivatives Research, Springer, vol. 22(3), pages 357-387, October.
    9. Baller, Stefanie & Entrop, Oliver & McKenzie, Michael & Wilkens, Marco, 2016. "Market makers’ optimal price-setting policy for exchange-traded certificates," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 71(C), pages 206-226.
    10. Ally Quan Zhang & Matthias Thul, 2017. "How much is the gap?—Efficient jump risk-adjusted valuation of leveraged certificates," Quantitative Finance, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 17(9), pages 1387-1401, September.
    11. Herrera, Helios & Schroth, Enrique, 2011. "Advantageous innovation and imitation in the underwriting market for corporate securities," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 35(5), pages 1097-1113, May.

    Most related items

    These are the items that most often cite the same works as this one and are cited by the same works as this one.
    1. Arnold, Marc & Schuette, Dustin & Wagner, Alexander, 2014. "Neglected Risk: Evidence from Structured Product Counterparty Exposure," Working Papers on Finance 1406, University of St. Gallen, School of Finance, revised Apr 2016.
    2. Schertler, Andrea, 2016. "Pricing effects when competitors arrive: The case of discount certificates in Germany," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 68(C), pages 84-99.
    3. Entrop, Oliver & Scholz, Hendrik & Wilkens, Marco, 2009. "The price-setting behavior of banks: An analysis of open-end leverage certificates on the German market," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 33(5), pages 874-882, May.
    4. Baller, Stefanie & Entrop, Oliver & Schober, Alexander & Wilkens, Marco, 2017. "What drives performance in the speculative market of short-term exchange-traded retail products?," Passauer Diskussionspapiere, Betriebswirtschaftliche Reihe B-26-17, University of Passau, Faculty of Business and Economics.
    5. Entrop, Oliver & Fischer, Georg, 2019. "Hedging costs and joint determinants of premiums and spreads in structured financial products," Passauer Diskussionspapiere, Betriebswirtschaftliche Reihe B-34-19, University of Passau, Faculty of Business and Economics.
    6. Baller, Stefanie & Entrop, Oliver & McKenzie, Michael & Wilkens, Marco, 2016. "Market makers’ optimal price-setting policy for exchange-traded certificates," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 71(C), pages 206-226.
    7. Schertler, Andrea, 2021. "Listing of classical options and the pricing of discount certificates," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 123(C).
    8. Baule, Rainer, 2011. "The order flow of discount certificates and issuer pricing behavior," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 35(11), pages 3120-3133, November.
    9. Entrop, Oliver & Fischer, Georg & McKenzie, Michael & Wilkens, Marco & Winkler, Christoph, 2016. "How does pricing affect investors’ product choice? Evidence from the market for discount certificates," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 68(C), pages 195-215.
    10. Rodrigo Hernandez & Yingying Shao & Pu Liu, 2017. "Leverage Certificates - A Case of Innovative Financial Engineering," Review of Economics & Finance, Better Advances Press, Canada, vol. 9, pages 71-82, August.
    11. Rodrigo Hernández & Wayne Lee & Pu Liu & Tian-Shyr Dai, 2013. "Outperformance Certificates: analysis, pricing, interpretation, and performance," Review of Quantitative Finance and Accounting, Springer, vol. 40(4), pages 691-713, May.
    12. Ammann, Manuel & Arnold, Marc & Straumann, Simon, 2017. "Illuminating the Dark Side of Financial Innovation: The Role of Investor Information," Working Papers on Finance 1704, University of St. Gallen, School of Finance.
    13. Oliver Entrop & Michael McKenzie & Marco Wilkens & Christoph Winkler, 2016. "The performance of individual investors in structured financial products," Review of Quantitative Finance and Accounting, Springer, vol. 46(3), pages 569-604, April.
    14. Henderson, Brian J. & Pearson, Neil D., 2011. "The dark side of financial innovation: A case study of the pricing of a retail financial product," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 100(2), pages 227-247, May.
    15. Wilkens, Sascha & Stoimenov, Pavel A., 2007. "The pricing of leverage products: An empirical investigation of the German market for `long' and `short' stock index certificates," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 31(3), pages 735-750, March.
    16. Rossella Agliardi, 2016. "Reverse convertible debt under credit risk," International Journal of Financial Engineering (IJFE), World Scientific Publishing Co. Pte. Ltd., vol. 3(01), pages 1-13, March.
    17. Thorsten Hens & Marc Oliver Rieger, 2014. "Can utility optimization explain the demand for structured investment products?," Quantitative Finance, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 14(4), pages 673-681, April.
    18. Henderson, Brian J. & Pearson, Neil D. & Wang, Li, 2020. "Pre-trade hedging: Evidence from the issuance of retail structured products," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 137(1), pages 108-128.
    19. Oliver Entrop & Georg Fischer, 2020. "Hedging costs and joint determinants of premiums and spreads in structured financial products," Journal of Futures Markets, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 40(7), pages 1049-1071, July.
    20. Chan, Chia-Ying & de Peretti, Christian & Qiao, Zhuo & Wong, Wing-Keung, 2012. "Empirical test of the efficiency of the UK covered warrants market: Stochastic dominance and likelihood ratio test approach," Journal of Empirical Finance, Elsevier, vol. 19(1), pages 162-174.

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:eee:jbfina:v:33:y:2009:i:8:p:1543-1553. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: . General contact details of provider: http://www.elsevier.com/locate/jbf .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a bibliographic reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: Catherine Liu (email available below). General contact details of provider: http://www.elsevier.com/locate/jbf .

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.