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Endless leverage certificates


  • Rossetto, Silvia
  • Bommel, Jos van


An endless leverage certificate (ELC) is a novel retail structured product that gives its holder the right to claim the difference between the value of an underlying security and an interest accruing financing level. An ELC ceases to exist if the underlying breaches a contractual knockout level, if the holder exercises, or if she/he sells it back to the issuer. We use Monte Carlo analysis to value ELCs and find that due to limited liability, a typical ELC written on a typical DAX stock can be worth 0.3% more than its intrinsic value (the difference between the value of the underlying and the financing level). Empirically, we find that in January 2007, the 5129 ELCs issued on the thirty DAX stocks traded at an average premium of 0.67% over the intrinsic value, and that the median bid-ask spread, expressed as a percentage of the underlying, was 0.18%. For covered warrants and options this spread measure was almost twice as high. Finally, we find that upon knockout, investors received on average 3.2% less than the theoretical knockout value, which is consistent with discontinuous trading of the underlying. Overall, our findings suggest that ELCs complete the market for leverage seeking retail investors.

Suggested Citation

  • Rossetto, Silvia & Bommel, Jos van, 2009. "Endless leverage certificates," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 33(8), pages 1543-1553, August.
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:jbfina:v:33:y:2009:i:8:p:1543-1553

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    Cited by:

    1. repec:mje:mjejnl:v:12:y:2017:i:3:p:7-18 is not listed on IDEAS
    2. Baller, Stefanie & Entrop, Oliver & Schober, Alexander & Wilkens, Marco, 2017. "What drives performance in the speculative market of short-term exchange-traded retail products?," Passauer Diskussionspapiere, Betriebswirtschaftliche Reihe B-26-17, University of Passau, Faculty of Business and Economics.
    3. H. Fink & S. Geissel & J. Sass & F. T. Seifried, 2019. "Implied risk aversion: an alternative rating system for retail structured products," Review of Derivatives Research, Springer, vol. 22(3), pages 357-387, October.
    4. Martina Bobrikova & Monika Harcarikova, 2017. "Financial Engineering With Options and Its Implementation for Issuing of New Financial Innovations," Montenegrin Journal of Economics, Economic Laboratory for Transition Research (ELIT), vol. 13(3), pages 7-18.
    5. Baller, Stefanie, 2017. "Risk taking in the market of speculative exchange-traded retail products: Do socio-economic factors matter?," Passauer Diskussionspapiere, Betriebswirtschaftliche Reihe B-27-17, University of Passau, Faculty of Business and Economics.
    6. Vincent Soltes & Monika Timkova & Veronika Gicova, 2019. "New Modifications of Express Certificates on Two Assets," Montenegrin Journal of Economics, Economic Laboratory for Transition Research (ELIT), vol. 15(4), pages 113-129.
    7. Baller, Stefanie & Entrop, Oliver & McKenzie, Michael & Wilkens, Marco, 2016. "Market makers’ optimal price-setting policy for exchange-traded certificates," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 71(C), pages 206-226.
    8. Marija Corluka & Edwin O. Fischer, 2014. "Forensic Finance: Market Abuse and Price Manipulation in Security Markets on the Trail," The Review of Finance and Banking, Academia de Studii Economice din Bucuresti, Romania / Facultatea de Finante, Asigurari, Banci si Burse de Valori / Catedra de Finante, vol. 6(2), pages 047-067, December.
    9. Ally Quan Zhang & Matthias Thul, 2017. "How much is the gap?—Efficient jump risk-adjusted valuation of leveraged certificates," Quantitative Finance, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 17(9), pages 1387-1401, September.
    10. Bobriková Martina & Harčariková Monika, 2015. "Reverse Bonus Certificate Design and Valuation Using Pricing by Duplication Methods," Scientific Annals of Economics and Business, Sciendo, vol. 62(3), pages 277-289, November.
    11. Herrera, Helios & Schroth, Enrique, 2011. "Advantageous innovation and imitation in the underwriting market for corporate securities," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 35(5), pages 1097-1113, May.


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