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Electric load forecasting with recency effect: A big data approach

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  • Wang, Pu
  • Liu, Bidong
  • Hong, Tao

Abstract

Temperature plays a key role in driving the electricity demand. We adopt the “recency effect”, a term drawn from psychology, to represent the fact that the electricity demand is affected by the temperatures of the preceding hours. In the load forecasting literature, the temperature variables are often constructed in the form of lagged hourly temperatures and moving average temperatures. In the past, computing power has limited the amount of temperature variables that can be used in a load forecasting model. In this paper, we present a comprehensive study to model the recency effect using a big data approach. We take advantage of modern computing power to answer a fundamental question: how many lagged hourly temperatures and/or moving average temperatures are needed in a regression model in order to capture the recency effect fully without compromising the forecasting accuracy? Using a case study based on data from the load forecasting track of the Global Energy Forecasting Competition 2012, we first demonstrate that a model with the recency effect outperforms its counterpart (a.k.a. Tao’s Vanilla Benchmark Model) by 18% to 21% for forecasting the load series at the top (aggregated) level. We then model the recency effect in order to customize load forecasting models at the bottom level of a geographic hierarchy, again showing a superiority over the benchmark model of 12% to 15% on average. Finally, we discuss four different implementations of the recency effect modeling by hour of a day. In addition, this paper also presents two interesting findings: 1) the naive models are not useful for benchmark purposes in load forecasting at aggregated level due to their lack of accuracy; and 2) slicing the data into 24 pieces to develop one model for each hour is not necessarily better than building one interaction regression model using all 24 hours together.

Suggested Citation

  • Wang, Pu & Liu, Bidong & Hong, Tao, 2016. "Electric load forecasting with recency effect: A big data approach," International Journal of Forecasting, Elsevier, vol. 32(3), pages 585-597.
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:intfor:v:32:y:2016:i:3:p:585-597
    DOI: 10.1016/j.ijforecast.2015.09.006
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. Tao Hong, 2014. "Energy Forecasting: Past, Present, and Future," Foresight: The International Journal of Applied Forecasting, International Institute of Forecasters, issue 32, pages 43-48, Winter.
    2. Hong, Tao & Wang, Pu & White, Laura, 2015. "Weather station selection for electric load forecasting," International Journal of Forecasting, Elsevier, vol. 31(2), pages 286-295.
    3. Nedellec, Raphael & Cugliari, Jairo & Goude, Yannig, 2014. "GEFCom2012: Electric load forecasting and backcasting with semi-parametric models," International Journal of Forecasting, Elsevier, vol. 30(2), pages 375-381.
    4. Hong, Tao & Pinson, Pierre & Fan, Shu, 2014. "Global Energy Forecasting Competition 2012," International Journal of Forecasting, Elsevier, vol. 30(2), pages 357-363.
    5. Ramanathan, Ramu & Engle, Robert & Granger, Clive W. J. & Vahid-Araghi, Farshid & Brace, Casey, 1997. "Shorte-run forecasts of electricity loads and peaks," International Journal of Forecasting, Elsevier, vol. 13(2), pages 161-174, June.
    6. Ben Taieb, Souhaib & Hyndman, Rob J., 2014. "A gradient boosting approach to the Kaggle load forecasting competition," International Journal of Forecasting, Elsevier, vol. 30(2), pages 382-394.
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    8. Hong, Tao & Fan, Shu, 2016. "Probabilistic electric load forecasting: A tutorial review," International Journal of Forecasting, Elsevier, vol. 32(3), pages 914-938.
    9. Bidong Liu & Jakub Nowotarski & Tao Hong & Rafal Weron, 2015. "Probabilistic load forecasting via Quantile Regression Averaging on sister forecasts," HSC Research Reports HSC/15/01, Hugo Steinhaus Center, Wroclaw University of Technology.
    10. Rafal Weron, 2006. "Modeling and Forecasting Electricity Loads and Prices: A Statistical Approach," HSC Books, Hugo Steinhaus Center, Wroclaw University of Technology, number hsbook0601.
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    Citations

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    Cited by:

    1. Dimoulkas, I. & Mazidi, P. & Herre, L., 2019. "Neural networks for GEFCom2017 probabilistic load forecasting," International Journal of Forecasting, Elsevier, vol. 35(4), pages 1409-1423.
    2. Haben, Stephen & Giasemidis, Georgios & Ziel, Florian & Arora, Siddharth, 2019. "Short term load forecasting and the effect of temperature at the low voltage level," International Journal of Forecasting, Elsevier, vol. 35(4), pages 1469-1484.
    3. Khoshrou, Abdolrahman & Pauwels, Eric J., 2019. "Short-term scenario-based probabilistic load forecasting: A data-driven approach," Applied Energy, Elsevier, vol. 238(C), pages 1258-1268.
    4. Nowotarski, Jakub & Weron, Rafał, 2016. "On the importance of the long-term seasonal component in day-ahead electricity price forecasting," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 57(C), pages 228-235.
    5. Ziel, Florian & Liu, Bidong, 2016. "Lasso estimation for GEFCom2014 probabilistic electric load forecasting," International Journal of Forecasting, Elsevier, vol. 32(3), pages 1029-1037.
    6. Jingrui Xie & Tao Hong, 2017. "Wind Speed for Load Forecasting Models," Sustainability, MDPI, Open Access Journal, vol. 9(5), pages 1-12, May.
    7. Smyl, Slawek & Hua, N. Grace, 2019. "Machine learning methods for GEFCom2017 probabilistic load forecasting," International Journal of Forecasting, Elsevier, vol. 35(4), pages 1424-1431.
    8. Hafeez, Ghulam & Alimgeer, Khurram Saleem & Khan, Imran, 2020. "Electric load forecasting based on deep learning and optimized by heuristic algorithm in smart grid," Applied Energy, Elsevier, vol. 269(C).
    9. Nowotarski, Jakub & Liu, Bidong & Weron, Rafał & Hong, Tao, 2016. "Improving short term load forecast accuracy via combining sister forecasts," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 98(C), pages 40-49.
    10. Sungwoo Park & Jihoon Moon & Seungwon Jung & Seungmin Rho & Sung Wook Baik & Eenjun Hwang, 2020. "A Two-Stage Industrial Load Forecasting Scheme for Day-Ahead Combined Cooling, Heating and Power Scheduling," Energies, MDPI, Open Access Journal, vol. 13(2), pages 1-23, January.
    11. Purva Grover & Arpan Kumar Kar, 2017. "Big Data Analytics: A Review on Theoretical Contributions and Tools Used in Literature," Global Journal of Flexible Systems Management, Springer;Global Institute of Flexible Systems Management, vol. 18(3), pages 203-229, September.
    12. Luo, Jian & Hong, Tao & Fang, Shu-Cherng, 2018. "Benchmarking robustness of load forecasting models under data integrity attacks," International Journal of Forecasting, Elsevier, vol. 34(1), pages 89-104.
    13. Sana Mujeeb & Nadeem Javaid & Manzoor Ilahi & Zahid Wadud & Farruh Ishmanov & Muhammad Khalil Afzal, 2019. "Deep Long Short-Term Memory: A New Price and Load Forecasting Scheme for Big Data in Smart Cities," Sustainability, MDPI, Open Access Journal, vol. 11(4), pages 1-29, February.
    14. Alexis Gerossier & Robin Girard & Alexis Bocquet & George Kariniotakis, 2018. "Robust Day-Ahead Forecasting of Household Electricity Demand and Operational Challenges," Energies, MDPI, Open Access Journal, vol. 11(12), pages 1-18, December.
    15. Hong, Tao & Xie, Jingrui & Black, Jonathan, 2019. "Global energy forecasting competition 2017: Hierarchical probabilistic load forecasting," International Journal of Forecasting, Elsevier, vol. 35(4), pages 1389-1399.
    16. Masoud Sobhani & Allison Campbell & Saurabh Sangamwar & Changlin Li & Tao Hong, 2019. "Combining Weather Stations for Electric Load Forecasting," Energies, MDPI, Open Access Journal, vol. 12(8), pages 1-11, April.
    17. George P. Papaioannou & Christos Dikaiakos & Anargyros Dramountanis & Panagiotis G. Papaioannou, 2016. "Analysis and Modeling for Short- to Medium-Term Load Forecasting Using a Hybrid Manifold Learning Principal Component Model and Comparison with Classical Statistical Models (SARIMAX, Exponential Smoot," Energies, MDPI, Open Access Journal, vol. 9(8), pages 1-40, August.
    18. Bidong Liu & Jiali Liu & Tao Hong, 2015. "Sister models for load forecast combination," HSC Research Reports HSC/15/02, Hugo Steinhaus Center, Wroclaw University of Technology.
    19. Sobhani, Masoud & Hong, Tao & Martin, Claude, 2020. "Temperature anomaly detection for electric load forecasting," International Journal of Forecasting, Elsevier, vol. 36(2), pages 324-333.
    20. Hong, Tao & Fan, Shu, 2016. "Probabilistic electric load forecasting: A tutorial review," International Journal of Forecasting, Elsevier, vol. 32(3), pages 914-938.
    21. Miguel López & Carlos Sans & Sergio Valero & Carolina Senabre, 2018. "Empirical Comparison of Neural Network and Auto-Regressive Models in Short-Term Load Forecasting," Energies, MDPI, Open Access Journal, vol. 11(8), pages 1-19, August.
    22. Seung-Min Jung & Sungwoo Park & Seung-Won Jung & Eenjun Hwang, 2020. "Monthly Electric Load Forecasting Using Transfer Learning for Smart Cities," Sustainability, MDPI, Open Access Journal, vol. 12(16), pages 1-18, August.
    23. Guo-Feng Fan & Yan-Hui Guo & Jia-Mei Zheng & Wei-Chiang Hong, 2019. "Application of the Weighted K-Nearest Neighbor Algorithm for Short-Term Load Forecasting," Energies, MDPI, Open Access Journal, vol. 12(5), pages 1-19, March.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Interaction regression; Group analysis; Lagged temperature; Linear models; Moving average temperature; Multiple linear regression; Naive models; Benchmark;

    JEL classification:

    • C22 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Single Equation Models; Single Variables - - - Time-Series Models; Dynamic Quantile Regressions; Dynamic Treatment Effect Models; Diffusion Processes
    • C32 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Multiple or Simultaneous Equation Models; Multiple Variables - - - Time-Series Models; Dynamic Quantile Regressions; Dynamic Treatment Effect Models; Diffusion Processes; State Space Models
    • C53 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Econometric Modeling - - - Forecasting and Prediction Models; Simulation Methods
    • Q47 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - Energy - - - Energy Forecasting

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