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Locked and crossed markets on NASDAQ and the NYSE

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  • Shkilko, Andriy V.
  • Van Ness, Bonnie F.
  • Van Ness, Robert A.

Abstract

The NBBO for an average active stock is non-positive (locked or crossed) 10.58% and 4.05% of the time on, respectively, the NASDAQ and the NYSE inter-markets. Locks and crosses are frequent fleeting events that usually accompany significant price changes. Non-positive NBBOs arise because of (i) simultaneous and (ii) tardy quote updates, (iii) electronically unreachable quotes, (iv) reluctance to trade against autoquotes, (v) order transit considerations, and (vi) ECN liquidity attraction efforts. Most locks and crosses result from competitive trading practices in contemporary fragmented markets.

Suggested Citation

  • Shkilko, Andriy V. & Van Ness, Bonnie F. & Van Ness, Robert A., 2008. "Locked and crossed markets on NASDAQ and the NYSE," Journal of Financial Markets, Elsevier, vol. 11(3), pages 308-337, August.
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:finmar:v:11:y:2008:i:3:p:308-337
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. Robert Battalio & Brian Hatch & Robert Jennings, 2004. "Toward a National Market System for U.S. Exchange-listed Equity Options," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 59(2), pages 933-962, April.
    2. Doron Avramov & Tarun Chordia & Amit Goyal, 2006. "The Impact of Trades on Daily Volatility," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 19(4), pages 1241-1277.
    3. Charles Cao & Eric Ghysels & Frank Hatheway, 2000. "Price Discovery without Trading: Evidence from the Nasdaq Preopening," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 55(3), pages 1339-1365, June.
    4. Ellis, Katrina & Michaely, Roni & O'Hara, Maureen, 2000. "The Accuracy of Trade Classification Rules: Evidence from Nasdaq," Journal of Financial and Quantitative Analysis, Cambridge University Press, vol. 35(04), pages 529-551, December.
    5. Bessembinder, Hendrik, 2003. "Quote-based competition and trade execution costs in NYSE-listed stocks," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 70(3), pages 385-422, December.
    6. Goldstein, Michael A. & Shkilko, Andriy V. & Van Ness, Bonnie F. & Van Ness, Robert A., 2008. "Competition in the market for NASDAQ securities," Journal of Financial Markets, Elsevier, vol. 11(2), pages 113-143, May.
    7. Boehmer, Ekkehart, 2005. "Dimensions of execution quality: Recent evidence for US equity markets," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 78(3), pages 553-582, December.
    8. Lee, Charles M C & Ready, Mark J, 1991. " Inferring Trade Direction from Intraday Data," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 46(2), pages 733-746, June.
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    Cited by:

    1. Laurence Lescourret, 2012. "Non-fundamental Information and Market-makers' Behavior during the NASDAQ Preopening Session," Post-Print hal-00772798, HAL.
    2. Thierry Foucault & Roman Kozhan & Wing Wah Tham, 2017. "Toxic Arbitrage," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 30(4), pages 1053-1094.
    3. Hoffmann, Peter, 2016. "Adverse selection, market access, and inter-market competition," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 65(C), pages 108-119.
    4. Garvey, Ryan & Wu, Fei, 2011. "Information, speed vs. cost trade-offs, and order routing decisions in U.S. equity markets," Journal of Empirical Finance, Elsevier, vol. 18(3), pages 408-422, June.

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