IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/a/eee/finana/v50y2017icp52-66.html
   My bibliography  Save this article

Predictability and diversification benefits of investing in commodity and currency futures

Author

Listed:
  • Cotter, John
  • Eyiah-Donkor, Emmanuel
  • Potì, Valerio

Abstract

We re-examine diversification benefits of investing in commodities and currencies by considering a risk-averse investor with mean-variance preferences who exploits the possibility of predictable time variation in asset return means, variances, and covariances. We implement unconditional and conditional efficient portfolio strategies designed to exploit this predictability, together with more traditional and/or ad hoc ones yet hitherto relatively unexplored in this context (including the equally weighted, fixed weight, volatility timing, and reward-to-risk timing strategies). We find that, for all portfolio strategies, commodities and currencies do not improve the investment opportunity set of the investor with an existing portfolio of stocks, bonds and T-bills, and an investment horizon of one month. Our findings, which reverse the conclusions of previous studies that focus on static portfolio strategies, are robust across several performance metrics.

Suggested Citation

  • Cotter, John & Eyiah-Donkor, Emmanuel & Potì, Valerio, 2017. "Predictability and diversification benefits of investing in commodity and currency futures," International Review of Financial Analysis, Elsevier, vol. 50(C), pages 52-66.
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:finana:v:50:y:2017:i:c:p:52-66
    DOI: 10.1016/j.irfa.2016.12.009
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1057521916301922
    Download Restriction: Full text for ScienceDirect subscribers only

    File URL: https://libkey.io/10.1016/j.irfa.2016.12.009?utm_source=ideas
    LibKey link: if access is restricted and if your library uses this service, LibKey will redirect you to where you can use your library subscription to access this item
    ---><---

    As the access to this document is restricted, you may want to search for a different version of it.

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. John Y. Campbell & Yeung Lewis Chanb & M. Viceira, 2013. "A multivariate model of strategic asset allocation," World Scientific Book Chapters, in: Leonard C MacLean & William T Ziemba (ed.), HANDBOOK OF THE FUNDAMENTALS OF FINANCIAL DECISION MAKING Part II, chapter 39, pages 809-848, World Scientific Publishing Co. Pte. Ltd..
    2. Michael C. Jensen, 1968. "The Performance Of Mutual Funds In The Period 1945–1964," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 23(2), pages 389-416, May.
    3. Hong, Harrison & Yogo, Motohiro, 2012. "What does futures market interest tell us about the macroeconomy and asset prices?," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 105(3), pages 473-490.
    4. Victor DeMiguel & Francisco J. Nogales & Raman Uppal, 2014. "Stock Return Serial Dependence and Out-of-Sample Portfolio Performance," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 27(4), pages 1031-1073.
    5. Victor DeMiguel & Lorenzo Garlappi & Raman Uppal, 2009. "Optimal Versus Naive Diversification: How Inefficient is the 1-N Portfolio Strategy?," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 22(5), pages 1915-1953, May.
    6. Pettenuzzo, Davide & Timmermann, Allan & Valkanov, Rossen, 2014. "Forecasting stock returns under economic constraints," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 114(3), pages 517-553.
    7. Raymond Kan & Guofu Zhou, 2012. "Tests of Mean-Variance Spanning," Annals of Economics and Finance, Society for AEF, vol. 13(1), pages 139-187, May.
    8. Berndt, Ernst R & Savin, N Eugene, 1977. "Conflict among Criteria for Testing Hypotheses in the Multivariate Linear Regression Model," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 45(5), pages 1263-1277, July.
    9. Luc Bauwens & Sébastien Laurent & Jeroen V. K. Rombouts, 2006. "Multivariate GARCH models: a survey," Journal of Applied Econometrics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 21(1), pages 79-109, January.
    10. Breusch, T S, 1979. "Conflict among Criteria for Testing Hypotheses: Extensions and Comments," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 47(1), pages 203-207, January.
    11. Huberman, Gur & Kandel, Shmuel, 1987. "Mean-Variance Spanning," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 42(4), pages 873-888, September.
    12. Lorenzo Cappiello & Robert F. Engle & Kevin Sheppard, 2006. "Asymmetric Dynamics in the Correlations of Global Equity and Bond Returns," Journal of Financial Econometrics, Society for Financial Econometrics, vol. 4(4), pages 537-572.
    13. John H. Cochrane, 1999. "Portfolio advice of a multifactor world," Economic Perspectives, Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago, vol. 23(Q III), pages 59-78.
    14. Gerald R. Jensen & Robert R. Johnson & Jeffrey M. Mercer, 2000. "Efficient use of commodity futures in diversified portfolios," Journal of Futures Markets, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 20(5), pages 489-506, May.
    15. Wayne E. Ferson & Andrew F. Siegel, 2009. "Testing Portfolio Efficiency with Conditioning Information," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 22(7), pages 2535-2558, July.
    16. Carhart, Mark M, 1997. "On Persistence in Mutual Fund Performance," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 52(1), pages 57-82, March.
    17. Abhyankar, Abhay & Basu, Devraj & Stremme, Alexander, 2012. "The Optimal Use of Return Predictability: An Empirical Study," Journal of Financial and Quantitative Analysis, Cambridge University Press, vol. 47(5), pages 973-1001, October.
    18. Ludvigson, Sydney C. & Ng, Serena, 2007. "The empirical risk-return relation: A factor analysis approach," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 83(1), pages 171-222, January.
    19. Balduzzi, Pierluigi & Lynch, Anthony W., 1999. "Transaction costs and predictability: some utility cost calculations," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 52(1), pages 47-78, April.
    20. Pastor, Lubos & Stambaugh, Robert F., 2003. "Liquidity Risk and Expected Stock Returns," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 111(3), pages 642-685, June.
    21. Ferson, Wayne E & Foerster, Stephen R & Keim, Donald B, 1993. "General Tests of Latent Variable Models and Mean-Variance Spanning," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 48(1), pages 131-156, March.
    22. Bossaerts, Peter & Hillion, Pierre, 1999. "Implementing Statistical Criteria to Select Return Forecasting Models: What Do We Learn?," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 12(2), pages 405-428.
    23. Nijman, T.E. & de Roon, F.A., 2001. "Testing for mean-variance spanning : A survey," Other publications TiSEM 0159f80a-c61b-4519-b004-a, Tilburg University, School of Economics and Management.
    24. Christopher J. Neely & David E. Rapach & Jun Tu & Guofu Zhou, 2014. "Forecasting the Equity Risk Premium: The Role of Technical Indicators," Management Science, INFORMS, vol. 60(7), pages 1772-1791, July.
    25. Daskalaki, Charoula & Skiadopoulos, George, 2011. "Should investors include commodities in their portfolios after all? New evidence," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 35(10), pages 2606-2626, October.
    26. John H. Cochrane, 2008. "The Dog That Did Not Bark: A Defense of Return Predictability," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 21(4), pages 1533-1575, July.
    27. Glosten, Lawrence R & Jagannathan, Ravi & Runkle, David E, 1993. "On the Relation between the Expected Value and the Volatility of the Nominal Excess Return on Stocks," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 48(5), pages 1779-1801, December.
    28. Amit Goyal & Ivo Welch, 2003. "Predicting the Equity Premium with Dividend Ratios," Management Science, INFORMS, vol. 49(5), pages 639-654, May.
    29. Kearney, Colm & Poti, Valerio, 2006. "Correlation dynamics in European equity markets," Research in International Business and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 20(3), pages 305-321, September.
    30. Michael W. Brandt & Pedro Santa‐Clara, 2006. "Dynamic Portfolio Selection by Augmenting the Asset Space," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 61(5), pages 2187-2217, October.
    31. DeRoon, Frans A. & Nijman, Theo E., 2001. "Testing for mean-variance spanning: a survey," Journal of Empirical Finance, Elsevier, vol. 8(2), pages 111-155, May.
    32. Ivo Welch & Amit Goyal, 2008. "A Comprehensive Look at The Empirical Performance of Equity Premium Prediction," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 21(4), pages 1455-1508, July.
    33. Dietrich Domanski & Alexandra Heath, 2007. "Financial investors and commodity markets," BIS Quarterly Review, Bank for International Settlements, March.
    34. Harry Markowitz, 1952. "Portfolio Selection," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 7(1), pages 77-91, March.
    35. Sydney C. Ludvigson & Serena Ng, 2009. "Macro Factors in Bond Risk Premia," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 22(12), pages 5027-5067, December.
    36. John Y. Campbell & Samuel B. Thompson, 2008. "Predicting Excess Stock Returns Out of Sample: Can Anything Beat the Historical Average?," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 21(4), pages 1509-1531, July.
    37. Bessembinder, Hendrik & Chan, Kalok, 1992. "Time-varying risk premia and forecastable returns in futures markets," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 32(2), pages 169-193, October.
    38. Fama, Eugene F. & French, Kenneth R., 2015. "A five-factor asset pricing model," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 116(1), pages 1-22.
    39. Dybvig, Philip H & Ross, Stephen A, 1985. "Differential Information and Performance Measurement Using a Security Market Line," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 40(2), pages 383-399, June.
    40. Fama, Eugene F. & French, Kenneth R., 1993. "Common risk factors in the returns on stocks and bonds," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 33(1), pages 3-56, February.
    41. Acharya, Viral V. & Lochstoer, Lars A. & Ramadorai, Tarun, 2013. "Limits to arbitrage and hedging: Evidence from commodity markets," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 109(2), pages 441-465.
    42. Newey, Whitney & West, Kenneth, 2014. "A simple, positive semi-definite, heteroscedasticity and autocorrelation consistent covariance matrix," Applied Econometrics, Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration (RANEPA), vol. 33(1), pages 125-132.
    43. Michael Johannes & Arthur Korteweg & Nicholas Polson, 2014. "Sequential Learning, Predictability, and Optimal Portfolio Returns," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 69(2), pages 611-644, April.
    44. Hoevenaars, Roy P.M.M. & Molenaar, Roderick D.J. & Schotman, Peter C. & Steenkamp, Tom B.M., 2008. "Strategic asset allocation with liabilities: Beyond stocks and bonds," Journal of Economic Dynamics and Control, Elsevier, vol. 32(9), pages 2939-2970, September.
    45. Rapach, David & Zhou, Guofu, 2013. "Forecasting Stock Returns," Handbook of Economic Forecasting, in: G. Elliott & C. Granger & A. Timmermann (ed.), Handbook of Economic Forecasting, edition 1, volume 2, chapter 0, pages 328-383, Elsevier.
    46. Bekaert, Geert & Urias, Michael S, 1996. "Diversification, Integration and Emerging Market Closed-End Funds," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 51(3), pages 835-869, July.
    47. Christopher J. Neely & David E. Rapach & Jun Tu & Guofu Zhou, 2014. "Forecasting the Equity Risk Premium: The Role of Technical Indicators," Management Science, INFORMS, vol. 60(7), pages 1772-1791, July.
    48. Nicholas Barberis, 2000. "Investing for the Long Run when Returns Are Predictable," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 55(1), pages 225-264, February.
    49. Stock J.H. & Watson M.W., 2002. "Forecasting Using Principal Components From a Large Number of Predictors," Journal of the American Statistical Association, American Statistical Association, vol. 97, pages 1167-1179, December.
    50. Gargano, Antonio & Timmermann, Allan, 2014. "Forecasting commodity price indexes using macroeconomic and financial predictors," International Journal of Forecasting, Elsevier, vol. 30(3), pages 825-843.
    51. Belousova, Julia & Dorfleitner, Gregor, 2012. "On the diversification benefits of commodities from the perspective of euro investors," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 36(9), pages 2455-2472.
    52. Wayne E. Ferson & Andrew F. Siegel, 2001. "The Efficient Use of Conditioning Information in Portfolios," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 56(3), pages 967-982, June.
    53. Kirby, Chris & Ostdiek, Barbara, 2012. "It’s All in the Timing: Simple Active Portfolio Strategies that Outperform Naïve Diversification," Journal of Financial and Quantitative Analysis, Cambridge University Press, vol. 47(2), pages 437-467, April.
    54. Leyuan You & Robert T. Daigler, 2013. "A Markowitz Optimization of Commodity Futures Portfolios," Journal of Futures Markets, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 33(4), pages 343-368, April.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Citations

    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.
    as


    Cited by:

    1. Yang, Yurun & Göncü, Ahmet & Pantelous, Athanasios A., 2018. "Momentum and reversal strategies in Chinese commodity futures markets," International Review of Financial Analysis, Elsevier, vol. 60(C), pages 177-196.
    2. Ahn, Jung-Hyun & Six, Pierre, 2019. "A study of first generation commodity indices: Indices based on financial diversification," Finance Research Letters, Elsevier, vol. 30(C), pages 194-200.
    3. Nguyen, Duc Khuong & Topaloglou, Nikolas & Walther, Thomas, 2020. "Asset Classes and Portfolio Diversification: Evidence from a Stochastic Spanning Approach," MPRA Paper 103870, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    4. Gagnon, Marie-Hélène & Manseau, Guillaume & Power, Gabriel J., 2020. "They're back! Post-financialization diversification benefits of commodities," International Review of Financial Analysis, Elsevier, vol. 71(C).

    Most related items

    These are the items that most often cite the same works as this one and are cited by the same works as this one.
    1. Daskalaki, Charoula & Skiadopoulos, George & Topaloglou, Nikolas, 2017. "Diversification benefits of commodities: A stochastic dominance efficiency approach," Journal of Empirical Finance, Elsevier, vol. 44(C), pages 250-269.
    2. John Cotter & Emmanuel Eyiah-Donkor & Valerio Potì, 2020. "Commodity Futures Return Predictability and Intertemporal Asset Pricing," Working Papers 202011, Geary Institute, University College Dublin.
    3. Peñaranda, Francisco & Sentana, Enrique, 2016. "Duality in mean-variance frontiers with conditioning information," Journal of Empirical Finance, Elsevier, vol. 38(PB), pages 762-785.
    4. Fethke, Tobias & Prokopczuk, Marcel, 2018. "Is Commodity Index Investing Profitable?," Hannover Economic Papers (HEP) dp-635, Leibniz Universität Hannover, Wirtschaftswissenschaftliche Fakultät.
    5. Massimo Guidolin & Manuela Pedio, 2018. "Forecasting Commodity Futures Returns: An Economic Value Analysis of Macroeconomic vs. Specific Factors," BAFFI CAREFIN Working Papers 1886, BAFFI CAREFIN, Centre for Applied Research on International Markets Banking Finance and Regulation, Universita' Bocconi, Milano, Italy.
    6. Fletcher, Jonathan & Basu, Devraj, 2016. "An examination of the benefits of dynamic trading strategies in U.K. closed-end funds," International Review of Financial Analysis, Elsevier, vol. 47(C), pages 109-118.
    7. Lin, Qi & Lin, Xi, 2021. "Cash conversion cycle and aggregate stock returns," Journal of Financial Markets, Elsevier, vol. 52(C).
    8. Dichtl, Hubert, 2020. "Forecasting excess returns of the gold market: Can we learn from stock market predictions?," Journal of Commodity Markets, Elsevier, vol. 19(C).
    9. Massimo Guidolin & Manuela Pedio, 2021. "Forecasting commodity futures returns with stepwise regressions: Do commodity-specific factors help?," Annals of Operations Research, Springer, vol. 299(1), pages 1317-1356, April.
    10. Hammerschmid, Regina & Lohre, Harald, 2018. "Regime shifts and stock return predictability," International Review of Economics & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 56(C), pages 138-160.
    11. Han, Yufeng & Zhou, Guofu & Zhu, Yingzi, 2016. "A trend factor: Any economic gains from using information over investment horizons?," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 122(2), pages 352-375.
    12. Bätje, Fabian & Menkhoff, Lukas, 2016. "Predicting the equity premium via its components," VfS Annual Conference 2016 (Augsburg): Demographic Change 145789, Verein für Socialpolitik / German Economic Association.
    13. Pettenuzzo, Davide & Timmermann, Allan & Valkanov, Rossen, 2014. "Forecasting stock returns under economic constraints," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 114(3), pages 517-553.
    14. Galvani, Valentina & Plourde, André, 2010. "Portfolio diversification in energy markets," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 32(2), pages 257-268, March.
    15. Fletcher, Jonathan, 2018. "An empirical examination of the diversification benefits of U.K. international equity closed-end funds," International Review of Financial Analysis, Elsevier, vol. 55(C), pages 23-34.
    16. Tsiakas, Ilias & Li, Jiahan & Zhang, Haibin, 2020. "Equity premium prediction and the state of the economy," Journal of Empirical Finance, Elsevier, vol. 58(C), pages 75-95.
    17. Baetje, Fabian & Menkhoff, Lukas, 2013. "Macro determinants of U.S. stock market risk premia in bull and bear markets," Hannover Economic Papers (HEP) dp-520, Leibniz Universität Hannover, Wirtschaftswissenschaftliche Fakultät.
    18. Sakkas, Athanasios & Tessaromatis, Nikolaos, 2020. "Factor based commodity investing," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 115(C).
    19. Rakowski, David & Shirley, Sara, 2020. "What drives the market for exchange-traded notes?," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 111(C).
    20. Wang, Yudong & Pan, Zhiyuan & Liu, Li & Wu, Chongfeng, 2019. "Oil price increases and the predictability of equity premium," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 102(C), pages 43-58.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Commodity and currency futures; Spanning tests; Predictability; Portfolio strategies; Out-of-sample performance;
    All these keywords.

    JEL classification:

    • C53 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Econometric Modeling - - - Forecasting and Prediction Models; Simulation Methods
    • G10 - Financial Economics - - General Financial Markets - - - General (includes Measurement and Data)
    • G11 - Financial Economics - - General Financial Markets - - - Portfolio Choice; Investment Decisions
    • G17 - Financial Economics - - General Financial Markets - - - Financial Forecasting and Simulation

    Statistics

    Access and download statistics

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:eee:finana:v:50:y:2017:i:c:p:52-66. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: . General contact details of provider: http://www.elsevier.com/locate/inca/620166 .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a bibliographic reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: Nithya Sathishkumar (email available below). General contact details of provider: http://www.elsevier.com/locate/inca/620166 .

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.